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In vitro ( Latin : in glass ) studies in experimental biology are those that are conducted using components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological surroundings in order to permit a more detailed or more convenient analysis than can be done with whole organisms. Colloquially, these experiments are commonly called " test tube experiments". In contrast, in vivo work is that which is conducted with living organisms in their normal, intact state, while ex vivo studies are conducted on functional organs that have been removed from the intact organism. Common examples of in vitro experiments include work that uses (a) cells derived from multicellular organisms ( cell culture or tissue culture ), (b) subcellular components (e.g. mitochondria or ribosomes ), (c) cellular or subcellular extracts (e.g. wheat germ or reticulocyte extracts), or (d) purified molecules in the test tube (often proteins , DNA , or RNA , either individually or in combination).
NASA researcher checking hydroponic onions with Bibb lettuce to his left and radishes to the right Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture and is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil . Terrestrial plants may be grown with their roots in the mineral nutrient solution only or in an inert medium, such as perlite , gravel , mineral wool , expanded clay or coconut husk. Researchers discovered in the 18th century that plants absorb essential mineral nutrients as inorganic ions in water.
Close-up of lettuce and wheat grown in an aeroponic apparatus, NASAP , 1998. Aeroponics is the process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of soil or an aggregate medium (known as geoponics ). The word "aeroponic" is derived from the Greek meanings of aero - (air) and ponos (labour). Aeroponic culture differs from both conventional hydroponics and in-vitro ( plant tissue culture ) growing. Unlike hydroponics , which uses water as a growing medium and essential minerals to sustain plant growth, aeroponics is conducted without a growing medium. [ 1 ] Because water is used in aeroponics to transmit nutrients, it is sometimes considered a type of hydroponics.