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Richard Stallman. Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms,[1] is a software freedom activist and computer programmer.

Richard Stallman

He campaigns for software to be distributed in a manner such that its users receive the freedoms to use, study, distribute and modify that software. Software that ensures these freedoms (on receipt) is termed free software. He is best known for launching the GNU Project, founding the Free Software Foundation, developing the GNU Compiler Collection and GNU Emacs, and writing the GNU General Public License. Stallman launched the GNU Project in September 1983 to create a Unix-like computer operating system composed entirely of free software.[2] With this, he also launched the free software movement.

In 1989 he co-founded the League for Programming Freedom. As of 2012[update], he has received fourteen honorary doctorates and professorships (see Honors and awards). Early years[edit] New York City[edit] MIT[edit] Events leading to GNU[edit] Virtual appliance. A virtual appliance is a pre-configured virtual machine image, ready to run on a hypervisor; virtual appliances are a subset of the broader class of software appliances.

Virtual appliance

Installation of a software appliance on a virtual machine and packaging that into an image creates a virtual appliance. Like software appliances, virtual appliances are intended to eliminate the installation, configuration and maintenance costs associated with running complex stacks of software. A virtual appliance is not a complete virtual machine platform, but rather a software image containing a software stack designed to run on a virtual machine platform which may be a Type 1 or Type 2 hypervisor. Like a physical computer, a hypervisor is merely a platform for running an operating system environment and does not provide application software itself. Many virtual appliances provide a Web page user interface to permit their configuration. File formats[edit] Relationship to grid computing[edit] See also[edit] Software as a service. According to a Gartner Group estimate, SaaS sales in 2010 reached $10 billion, and were projected to increase to $12.1bn in 2011, up 20.7% from 2010.[6] Gartner Group estimates that SaaS revenue will be more than double its 2010 numbers by 2015 and reach a projected $21.3bn.

Software as a service

Customer relationship management (CRM) continues to be the largest market for SaaS. SaaS revenue within the CRM market was forecast to reach $3.8bn in 2011, up from $3.2bn in 2010.[7] The term "software as a service" (SaaS) is considered to be part of the nomenclature of cloud computing, along with infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), desktop as a service (DaaS), backend as a service (BaaS), and information technology management as a service (ITMaaS). History[edit] Centralized hosting of business applications dates back to the 1960s. The expansion of the Internet during the 1990s brought about a new class of centralized computing, called Application Service Providers (ASP).