Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. The birthplace of Hegel in Stuttgart, which now houses The Hegel Museum Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (German: [ˈɡeɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism.
His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. Life Early years Childhood Right Hegelians. The Right Hegelians, Old Hegelians, or the Hegelian Right, were those followers of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in the early 19th century who took his philosophy in a politically and religiously conservative direction. They are typically contrasted with the Young Hegelians, who interpreted Hegel's political philosophy to support innovations in politics or religion. Hegel's historicism held that both ideas and nations could only be understood by understanding their history.
Young Hegelians. The Young Hegelians, or Left Hegelians, were a group of German intellectuals who, in the decade or so after the death of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in 1831, reacted to and wrote about his ambiguous legacy.
The Young Hegelians drew on his idea that the purpose and promise of history was the total negation of everything conducive to restricting freedom and reason; and they proceeded to mount radical critiques, first of religion and then of the Prussian political system. They ignored anti-utopian aspects of his thought that some have interpreted to mean that the world has already essentially reached perfection.
Left and Right Hegelianism The German philosophers who wrote immediately after the death of Hegel in 1831 can be roughly divided into the politically and religiously radical 'left', or 'young', Hegelians and the more conservative 'right', or 'old', Hegelians. Friedrich Engels. Friedrich Engels (German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈɛŋəls]; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, alongside Karl Marx.
In 1845 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research. In 1848 he co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx, and later he supported Marx financially to do research and write Das Kapital. Die Freien. Die Freien was a 19th-century circle of political philosophers in Germany, gathering for informal discussion over a period of a few years.
Formation Die Freien was the name given to the Berlin wing of the Young Hegelians, headed by Bruno Bauer. The group was formed at the University of Berlin. Its leader, Bruno Bauer was a student who had attended Hegel’s lectures and was then asked to defend the position of the Old Hegelians against the claims of David Strauss’s Life of Jesus. Karl Marx. Karl Marx[note 1] (/mɑrks/; German pronunciation: [ˈkaɐ̯l ˈmaɐ̯ks]; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist.
Marx's work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867–1894). The Civil War in France. Reading Marx’s Capital with David Harvey » Reading Capital. Reading Marx’s Capital Volume I with David Harvey A close reading of the text of Karl Marx’s Capital Volume I in 13 video lectures by Professor David Harvey.
Links to the complete course: These lectures were the inspiration for the book: A Companion to Marx’s Capital published by Verso in 2010. Marx, the Young Hegelians, and the Origins of Radical Social Theory: Dethroning the Self (Modern European Philosophy) (9780521003803): Warren Breckman. August Cieszkowski. Biography Cieszkowski studied at the Jagiellonian University and in then, from 1832, at the University of Berlin where he became interested in Hegelianism through the lectures of Karl Ludwig Michelet, who became a lifelong friend.
He gained his doctorate in philosophy from Heidelberg in 1838. After his studies he travelled around Europe, visiting France, England and Italy before returning to Poland in 1840 and settling permanently in Wierzenica, near Poznań, in 1843. Cieszkowski co-founded the Polish League (Liga Polska) in 1848. He was a member of the Prussian National Assembly (1848–1855) and a political activist. Philosophy Cieszkowski's 1838 work Prolegomena zur Historiosophie (Prolegomena to a Historiosophy) revised the Hegelian philosophy of history in an original manner. Ciezskowski's later works, Gott und Paligenesie (God and Palingenesis) (1842) and Ojcze Nasz (Our Father) (1848–1906, four volumes), reformulate his triad in much more explicitly religious terms.
Edgar Bauer. Edgar Bauer (7 October 1820 – 18 August 1886) was a German political philosopher and a member of the Young Hegelians.
He was the younger brother of Bruno Bauer. According to Lawrence S. Benedetto Croce. Benedetto Croce (Italian: [beneˈdetto ˈkroːtʃe]; 25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, and occasionally also politician.
He wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, methodology of history writing and aesthetics. He was a prominent liberal, although he opposed laissez-faire free trade, and had considerable influence on other prominent Italian intellectuals including both Marxist Antonio Gramsci and fascist Giovanni Gentile. Giovanni Gentile. Giovanni Gentile (Italian: [dʒoˈvanni dʒenˈtiːle]; May 30, 1875 – April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher, a peer of Benedetto Croce.
He described himself as 'the philosopher of Fascism', and ghostwrote A Doctrine of Fascism (1932) for Benito Mussolini. He also devised his own system of philosophy, Actual Idealism. Life and thought Giovanni Gentile was born in Castelvetrano, Sicily. He was inspired by Italian intellectuals such as Mazzini, Rosmini, Gioberti, and Spaventa from whom he borrowed the idea of autoctisi, "self-construction", but also was strongly influenced by the German idealist and materialist schools of thought — namely Karl Marx, Hegel, and Fichte with whom he shared the ideal of creating a Wissenschaftslehre, theory for a structure of knowledge that makes no assumptions.
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Childhood and adolescence Emilio Angelo Carlo Marinetti (some documents give his name as "Filippo Achille Emilio Marinetti") spent the first years of his life in Alexandria, Egypt, where his father (Enrico Marinetti) and his mother (Amalia Grolli) lived together more uxorio (as if married).
Enrico was a lawyer from Piedmont, and his mother was the daughter of a literary professor from Milan. They had come to Egypt in 1865, at the invitation of Khedive Isma'il Pasha, to act as legal advisers for foreign companies that were taking part in his modernization program. His love for literature developed during the school years. The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism. Translated from French: Le Figaro, Paris, February 20, 1909 (Italian version here) This English-language translation COPYRIGHT ©1973 Thames and Hudson Ltd, London. All rights reserved. Source for translation by R.W. Flint reproduced below: Futurist Manifesto.
The Futurist Manifesto, written by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, was published in the Italian newspaper Gazzetta dell'Emilia in Bologna on 5 February 1909, then in French as Manifeste du futurisme in the newspaper Le Figaro on 20 February 1909. It initiated an artistic philosophy, Futurism, that was a rejection of the past, and a celebration of speed, machinery, violence, youth and industry; it was also an advocation of the modernization and cultural rejuvenation of Italy. Contents Fascist manifesto. Alceste De Ambris. Alceste De Ambris (15 September 1874–9 December 1934), was an Italian syndicalist, the brother of Amilcare De Ambris. De Ambris had a major part to play in the agrarian strike actions of 1908. Life De Ambris was born in Licciana Nardi, province of Massa-Carrara. With Gabriele D'Annunzio, he coauthored the Charter of Carnaro, a constitution for Fiume. De Ambris provided the legal and political framework for the document while D'Annunzio used his skills as a poet to make the document more impressive; he was also the leader of a nationalist syndicalist union "Unione Italiana del Lavoro.
" Although linked to the beginnings of Fascism through his attitude in 1914 and the support he gave D'Annunzio, De Ambris became a vocal opponent of Partito Nazionale Fascista and Mussolini's dictatorship. The Doctrine of Fascism. "The Doctrine of Fascism" ("La dottrina del fascismo") is an essay attributed to Benito Mussolini. Mussolini - THE DOCTRINE OF FASCISM. Actual idealism. Acceptance Alexandre Kojève. Humboldt University of Berlin. The Humboldt University of Berlin (German: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is one of Berlin's oldest universities, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt, whose university model has strongly influenced other European and Western universities.
From 1828 it was known as the Frederick William University (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität), and later (unofficially) also as the Universität unter den Linden after its location.