Ziusudra Ziusudra (also Zi-ud-sura and Zin-Suddu; Hellenized Xisuthros: "found long life" or "life of long days") of Shuruppak is listed in the WB-62 Sumerian king list recension as the last king of Sumer prior to the deluge. He is subsequently recorded as the hero of the Sumerian flood epic. He is also mentioned in other ancient literature, including The Death of Gilgamesh and The Poem of Early Rulers, and a late version of The Instructions of Shuruppak refers to Ziusudra. Akkadian Atrahasis ("extremely wise") and Utnapishtim ("he found life"), as well as biblical Noah ("rest") are similar heroes of flood legends of the ancient Near East. Although each version of the flood myth has distinctive story elements, there are numerous story elements that are common to two, three, or four versions.
Ys Flight of King Gradlon, by E. V. Luminais, 1884 (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Quimper)
Though Lemuria is no longer considered a valid scientific hypothesis, it has been adopted by writers involved in the occult, as well as some Tamil writers of India. Accounts of Lemuria differ, but all share a common belief that a continent existed in ancient times and sank beneath the ocean as a result of a geological, often cataclysmic, change, such as pole shift. In 1864 the zoologist and biogeographer Philip Sclater wrote an article on "The Mammals of Madagascar" in The Quarterly Journal of Science. Using a classification he referred to as lemurs but which included related primate groups, and puzzled by the presence of their fossils in both Madagascar and India but not in Africa or the Middle East, Sclater proposed that Madagascar and India had once been part of a larger continent. He wrote:
Atra-Hasis In 1965 W. G. Lambert and A. R.
Athanasius Kircher's map of Atlantis, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. From Mundus Subterraneus 1669, published in Amsterdam. The map is oriented with south at the top. While present-day philologists and historians unanimously accept the story's fictional character, there is still debate on its origins. Similarly to the story of Gyges, some scholars argue in favor of inspiration from older traditions, in particular Egyptian records of the Thera eruption, the Sea Peoples invasion, or the Trojan War. Others reject this chain of tradition as implausible and insist that Plato designed the story from scratch, drawing loose inspiration from contemporary events like the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily in 415–413 BC, or the destruction of Helike in 373 BC. Plato's account Atlantis
The Creation, beginning of the antediluvian (i.e., pre-Flood) world. (Artist's rendition by James Tissot) The antediluvian (or pre-diluvian) period – meaning "before the deluge" – is the period referred to in the Bible between the Fall of man and the Deluge (flood) in the biblical cosmology. The narrative takes up chapters 1-6 (excluding the flood narrative) of Genesis. Antediluvian