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Ziusudra (also Zi-ud-sura and Zin-Suddu ; Hellenized Xisuthros : "found long life" or "life of long days") of Shuruppak is listed in the WB-62 Sumerian king list recension as the last king of Sumer prior to the deluge . He is subsequently recorded as the hero of the Sumerian flood epic . He is also mentioned in other ancient literature, including The Death of Gilgamesh [ 1 ] and The Poem of Early Rulers , [ 2 ] and a late version of The Instructions of Shuruppak [ 3 ] refers to Ziusudra. [ 4 ] Akkadian Atrahasis ("extremely wise") and Utnapishtim ("he found life"), as well as biblical Noah ("rest") are similar heroes of flood legends of the ancient Near East . Although each version of the flood myth has distinctive story elements, there are numerous story elements that are common to two, three, or four versions.
Flight of King Gradlon , by E. V. Luminais, 1884 (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Quimper )
Lemuria ( pron.: / l ɨ ˈ m jʊər i ə / ) [ 1 ] is the name of a hypothetical " lost land " variously located in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The concept's 19th century origins lie in attempts to account for discontinuities in biogeography ; however, the concept of Lemuria has been rendered obsolete by modern theories of plate tectonics . Although sunken continents do exist – like Zealandia in the Pacific as well as Mauritia [ 2 ] and the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Ocean – there is no known geological formation under the Indian or Pacific Oceans that corresponds to the hypothetical Lemuria. [ 3 ] Though Lemuria is no longer considered a valid scientific hypothesis, it has been adopted by writers involved in the occult , as well as some Tamil writers of India . Accounts of Lemuria differ, but all share a common belief that a continent existed in ancient times and sank beneath the ocean as a result of a geological, often cataclysmic , change, such as pole shift.
Atra-Hasis ("exceedingly wise") is the protagonist and namesake of an 18th century BCE Akkadian epic . An "Atra-Hasis" appears on one of the Sumerian king lists as king of Shuruppak in the times before the flood. The Atra-Hasis tablets include both a creation myth and a flood account , which is one of three surviving Babylonian deluge stories. The oldest known copy of the epic tradition concerning Atrahasis [ 1 ] can be dated by colophon (scribal identification) to the reign of Hammurabi ’s great-grandson, Ammi-Saduqa (1646–1626 BCE), but various Old Babylonian fragments exist; it continued to be copied into the first millennium BCE.
Athanasius Kircher 's map of Atlantis, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. From Mundus Subterraneus 1669, published in Amsterdam. The map is oriented with south at the top. Atlantis (in Greek , Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος , "island of Atlas ") is a legendary island first mentioned in Plato 's dialogues Timaeus and Critias , written about 360 BC. According to Plato, Atlantis was a naval power lying "in front of the Pillars of Hercules " that conquered many parts of Western Europe and Africa 9,000 years before the time of Solon , or approximately 9600 BC. After a failed attempt to invade Athens , Atlantis sank into the ocean "in a single day and night of misfortune".
The Creation, beginning of the antediluvian (i.e., pre-Flood) world. (Artist's rendition by James Tissot ) The antediluvian (or pre-diluvian ) period – meaning "before the deluge" – is the period referred to in the Bible between the Creation of the Earth and the Deluge (flood) in the biblical cosmology . The narrative takes up chapters 1-6 (excluding the flood narrative) of Genesis .