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Testing the Authenticity of Organic Foods. There is a growing market for organic foods that are supposed to be free of pesticides, hormones and synthetic chemicals before they can be labeled as such.
Consumers, eager for chemical-free products, plunk down close to $14 billion annually for organic fare, according to the Organic Trade Association, a North American organization dedicated to promoting organic farming. But how do they know that the food they're getting—and paying a premium for—is really organic? British scientists have come up with a new test that determines the organic pedigree of products on store shelves by measuring the amount of nitrogen they hold. To be considered organic, crops must be grown without the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides on a farm that has passed a rigorous certification process. Mother's science-based view: Organics and Whole Foods are 'scam of the decade' Organic Fraud. The Policy and Regulatory Environment for Organic Farming in Europe: Country Reports. Lampkin, N.; Foster, C. and Padel, S. (1999) The Policy and Regulatory Environment for Organic Farming in Europe: Country Reports.
Organic Farming in Europe: Economics and Policy, no. Vol. 2. Universität Hohenheim, Stuttgart - Hohenheim. This Volume (2) documents in detail the policies and regulations to organic farming for all 15 EU member states and for three non-EU countries (Norway, Switzerland and the Czech Republic). European and national regulations and their implementation are reviewed covering agri-environmental and mainstream agricultural support measures, marketing and regional development programmes, certification system and oranic farming support in the form of advice, training and research. Recent Development and Political Acceptance of Organic Farming in Europe - Michelsen - 2001 - Sociologia Ruralis.
Organic farming has experienced a major break through in Europe during the 1990s.
The suggestion here, is to see it as an implantation of post-modernist values into agriculture and as representing a break in the agriculture self-rule,which developed during the 20th century. This rather unusual situation needs an open theoretical framework. Such a framework is suggested. It focuses on institutionalization and combines institutional theory with social movement theory and theory of coalition making. The need for a non-deterministic view on organic farming development is further justified by referring to a comparative analysis of the development of organic farming in eighteen European countries.
Regulating Meaning, Appropriating Nature: The Codification of California Organic Agriculture - Guthman - 1998 - Antipode. In California, conventional agro-food firms are beginning to appropriate the most lucrative aspects of organic food provision and to abandon the agronomic and marketing practices associated with organic agriculture's oppositional origins.
Echoing the uneasy and complex dialectic between nature and capital in the American West, organic farming is becoming more akin to farming off of nature's image, as the idiom of a “purer” nature is deployed to sell what is increasingly commodified nature. The direction of organic agriculture in California can be understood as reflecting global trends in agro-food provision and regulation, but it is also uniquely grounded in the context of California's regional history: on the one hand, a product of the counterculture, bolstered by a strong climate of environmental regulation; on the other hand, a legacy of California's exceptional agriculture, characterized in part by the dominance of growers' organizations and a focus on high-value specialty crops.
Smallholder participation and certification of organic farm products in Mexico. Volume 21, Issue 4, October 2005, Pages 449–460 Certifying Rural Spaces: Quality-Certified Products and Rural Governance Edited By Tad Mutersbaugh, Daniel Klooster, Marie-Christine Renard and Peter Taylor a PROIMMSE, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Universidad Nacional Autoónoma de Mexico, San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexicob Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico Available online 16 November 2005.