Methamphetamine ( USAN ) ( pron.: / ˌ m ɛ θ æ m ˈ f ɛ t əm iː n / ), also known as metamfetamine ( INN ), [ 2 ] meth , ice , [ 3 ] crystal , [ 4 ] glass , [ 4 ] tik , [ 5 ] N -methylamphetamine , methylamphetamine , and desoxyephedrine , is a psychostimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine class of psychoactive drugs . Methamphetamine occurs in two enantiomers , dextrorotary and levorotary ; dextromethamphetamine possesses the well-known psychostimulant effects of the drug, while levomethamphetamine is CNS -inactive. Although rarely prescribed, [ 6 ] methamphetamine hydrochloride is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of ADHD and obesity under the trade name Desoxyn.
Nitrous oxide , commonly known as laughing gas , [ 1 ] is a chemical compound with the formula N 2 O . It is an oxide of nitrogen . At room temperature, it is a colorless, non-flammable gas , with a slightly sweet odor and taste. It is used in surgery and dentistry for its anesthetic and analgesic effects. It is known as "laughing gas" due to the euphoric effects of inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anesthetic .
Mescaline or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its mind-altering effects similar to those of LSD and psilocybin . It occurs naturally in the peyote cactus ( Lophophora williamsii ), [ 1 ] the San Pedro cactus ( Echinopsis pachanoi ) and in the Peruvian torch ( Echinopsis peruviana ), and as well in a number of other members of the Cactaceae plant family. It is also found in small amounts in certain members of the Fabaceae (bean) family, including Acacia berlandieri . [ 2 ] Naturally derived mescaline powder extract. [ edit ] History and usage
Psilocin (also known as 4-HO-DMT , psilocine , psilocyn , or psilotsin ), is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic drug . It is present in most psychedelic mushrooms together with its phosphorylated counterpart psilocybin . Psilocin is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances . [ 2 ] The mind-altering effects of psilocin are highly variable and subjective and resemble those of LSD and mescaline . [ edit ] Chemistry
Methadone (also known as Symoron, Dolophine, Amidone, Methadose, Physeptone, Heptadon and many other names) is a synthetic opioid . It is used medically as an analgesic and a maintenance anti-addictive and reductive preparation for use by patients with opioid dependency . It was developed in Germany in 1937, mainly because Germany required a reliable internal source of opiates. Because it is an acyclic analog of morphine , methadone acts on the same opioid receptors and thus has many of the same effects.
Amphetamine ( USAN , contracted from alphamethyl-phenethylamine or α-methylphenethylamine ) is 1-phenylpropan-2-amine or C9H13N. Also called amfetamine ( INN ). It is a psychostimulant drug of the phenethylamine class that produces increased wakefulness and focus in association with decreased fatigue and appetite . Brand names of medications that contain, or metabolize into, amphetamine include Adderall , Dexedrine , Dextroamphet , Dextrostat , [ 2 ] Didrex , ProCentra , and Vyvanse , as well as Benzedrine or Psychedrine in the past.
Crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Crack cocaine is the freebase form of cocaine that can be smoked. It may also be termed rock , work , [ 1 ] hard , iron , cavvy , base , or just crack ; it is said to be the most addictive form of cocaine, [ 2 ] although this has been contested. Crack rocks offer a short but intense high to smokers. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] Crack appeared primarily in impoverished inner-city neighborhoods in New York , Los Angeles , and Miami in late 1984 and 1985. [ 5 ]
Cocaine ( benzoylmethylecgonine ) ( INN ) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. [ 5 ] The name comes from "coca" and the alkaloid suffix -ine , forming cocaine . It is a stimulant , an appetite suppressant , and a topical anesthetic . Biologically, cocaine acts as a serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor , also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI). It is addictive because of its effect on the mesolimbic reward pathway . [ 6 ] Unlike most molecules, cocaine has pockets [ clarification needed ] with both high hydrophilic and lipophilic efficiency , violating the rule of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance . This causes it to cross the blood–brain barrier far better than other psychoactive chemicals [ citation needed ] and may even induce blood brain barrier breakdown. [ 7 ] [ 8 ]
Heroin ( diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate ( INN )), also known as diamorphine ( BAN ), and colloquially as H , smack , horse , brown , black , tar , and other names is an opioid analgesic synthesized by C.R. Alder Wright in 1874 by adding two acetyl groups to the molecule morphine found in the opium poppy . It is the 3,6- diacetyl ester of morphine, and functions as a morphine prodrug (meaning that it is metabolically converted to morphine inside the body in order for it to work). [ 4 ] When used in medicine it is typically used to treat severe pain, such as that resulting from a heart attack or a severe injury. The name "heroin" is only used when being discussed in its illegal form.
Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants , and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia . They are also effective as anxiolytics , hypnotics , and anticonvulsants . Barbiturates also have analgesic effects, however these effects are somewhat weak, preventing barbiturates from being used in surgery in the absence of other analgesics. They have addiction potential, both physical and psychological.
Ketamine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine , primarily for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia , usually in combination with a sedative . Other uses include sedation in intensive care , analgesia (particularly in emergency medicine), and treatment of bronchospasm . Ketamine has a wide range of effects in humans, including analgesia , anesthesia , hallucinations , elevated blood pressure , and bronchodilation . [ 2 ] Like other drugs of its class such as tiletamine and phencyclidine (PCP), it induces a state referred to as " dissociative anesthesia " [ 3 ] and is used as a recreational drug .
MDMA ( 3,4-methylenedioxy- N -methamphetamine ) is an empathogenic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes of drugs . MDMA has become widely known as " ecstasy " (shortened to " E ", " X ", or " XTC "), usually referring to its street pill form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants . The term " molly " or " mandy " colloquially refers to MDMA in powder or crystalline form, usually implying a higher level of purity. [ 3 ]
Lysergic acid diethylamide , abbreviated LSD or LSD-25 , also known as lysergide ( INN ) and colloquially as acid , is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug of the ergoline family, well known for its psychological effects which can include altered thinking processes, closed and open eye visuals, synesthesia , an altered sense of time and spiritual experiences , as well as for its key role in 1960s counterculture . It is used mainly as an entheogen , recreational drug , and as an agent in psychedelic therapy . LSD is non-addictive, is not known to cause brain damage, and has extremely low toxicity relative to dose . However, adverse psychiatric reactions such as anxiety, paranoia, and delusions are possible. [ 3 ] LSD was first synthesized by Albert Hofmann in 1938 from ergotamine , a chemical derived by Arthur Stoll from ergot , a grain fungus that typically grows on rye .
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid ( GHB ), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid , is a naturally occurring substance found in the human central nervous system , as well as in wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all animals in small amounts. [ 1 ] It is also categorized as an illegal drug in many countries. [ 2 ] It is currently regulated in Australia and New Zealand, Canada, most of Europe and in the US. GHB as the sodium salt , known as sodium oxybate ( INN ) or by the trade name Xyrem, [ 3 ] is used to treat cataplexy [ 4 ] and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy . GHB has been used in a medical setting as a general anesthetic, to treat conditions such as insomnia, clinical depression, narcolepsy, and alcoholism , and to improve athletic performance. [ 5 ] It is also used as an intoxicant ( illegally in many jurisdictions) or as a date rape drug . [ 6 ] [ unreliable source?
Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of some plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants, as well as enhancing the reward memory of pollinators. It is most commonly consumed by humans in infusions extracted from the seed of the coffee plant and the leaves of the tea bush , as well as from various foods and drinks containing products derived from the kola nut . Other sources include yerba maté , guarana berries, guayusa , and the yaupon holly . In humans, caffeine acts as a central nervous system stimulant, temporarily warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness.