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A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words . A symbol in a syllabary, called a syllabogram , typically represents an (optional) consonant sound (simple onset ) followed by a vowel sound ( nucleus )—that is, a CV or V syllable—but other phonographic mappings such as CVC and CV-tone are also found in syllabaries. [ edit ] Types A writing system using a syllabary is complete when it covers all syllables in the corresponding spoken language without requiring complex orthographic / graphemic rules, like implicit codas (⟨C 1 V⟩ ⇒ /C 1 VC 2 /) silent vowels (⟨C 1 V 1 +C 2 V 2 ⟩ ⇒ /C 1 V 1 C 2 /) or echo vowels (⟨C 1 V 1 +C 2 V 1 ⟩ ⇒ /C 1 V 1 C 2 /). This loosely corresponds to shallow orthographies in alphabetic writing systems.
The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah , also known as George Gist , to write the Cherokee language in the late 1810s and early 1820s. His creation of the syllabary is particularly noteworthy in that he could not previously read any script. He first experimented with logograms , but his system later developed into a syllabary. In his system, each symbol represents a syllable rather than a single phoneme ; the 85 (originally 86) characters in the Cherokee syllabary provide a suitable method to write Cherokee. Some symbols do resemble the Latin , Greek and even the Cyrillic scripts ' letters, but the sounds are completely different (for example, the sound /a/ is written with a letter that resembles Latin D).
The greater part of the modern Vai syllabary. Eh and oh are the open vowels [ɛ, ɔ] . The jg on the bottom row is [ŋɡ] . Not shown are syllables beginning with g, h, w, m, n, ny, ng [ŋ] , and vowels. The Vai syllabary is a syllabic writing system devised for the Vai language by Momolu Duwalu Bukele of Jondu, in what is now Grand Cape Mount County , Liberia . [ 1 ] Bukele is regarded within the Vai community, as well as by most scholars, as the syllabary's inventor and chief promoter when it was first documented in the 1830s.
Braille / ˈ b r eɪ l / [ a ] is a tactile writing system used by the blind and the visually impaired , and found in books, on menus, signs, elevator buttons, and currency. Braille-users can read computer screens and other electronic supports thanks to refreshable braille displays . They can write braille with a slate and stylus or type it on a braille writer , such as a portable braille note-taker , or on a computer that prints with a braille embosser . Braille is named after its creator, Frenchman Louis Braille , who went blind following a childhood accident. At the age of 15, Braille developed his code for the French alphabet in 1824 as an improvement on night writing .
A rebus is an allusional device that uses pictures to represent words or parts of words. It was a favourite form of heraldic expression used in the Middle Ages to denote surnames, for example in its basic form three salmon fish to denote the name " Salmon ". A more sophisticated example was the rebus of Bishop Walter Lyhart (d.1472) of Norwich, consisting of a stag (or hart ) lying down in a conventional representation of water. The composition alludes to the name, profession or personal characteristics of the bearer, and speaks to the beholder Non verbis, sed rebus , which Latin expression signifies "not by words but by things" [ 1 ] ( res, rei (f), a thing, object, matter; rebus being ablative plural). [ 2 ] [ edit ] Rebuses and heraldry Rebuses are used extensively as a form of heraldic expression as a hint to the name of the bearer; they are not synonymous with canting arms .
Cuneiform script [ 1 ] is one of the earliest known systems of writing . [ 2 ] Emerging in Sumer in the late 4th millennium BC (the Uruk IV period), cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs . In the third millennium, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use grew smaller, from about 1,000 in the Early Bronze Age to about 400 in Late Bronze Age ( Hittite cuneiform ). The original Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Akkadian , Eblaite , Elamite , Hittite , Luwian , Hattic , Hurrian , and Urartian languages, and it inspired the Ugaritic and Old Persian alphabets. Cuneiform writing was gradually replaced by the Phoenician alphabet during the Neo-Assyrian Empire , and by the 2nd century AD, the script had become extinct, all knowledge of how to read it forgotten until it began to be deciphered in the 19th century.
Writing systems of the world today. Other alphabets Other abjads
Code on clay tablet Code on diorite stele The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code , dating back to about 1772 BC. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi , enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a human-sized stone stele and various clay tablets.
Klingon alphabets are fictional alphabets used in the Star Trek movies and television shows to write the Klingon language . In Mark Okrand 's The Klingon Dictionary this alphabet is named as pIqaD , but no information is given about it. When Klingon symbols are used in Star Trek productions they are merely decorative graphic elements, designed to emulate real writing and to create an appropriate atmosphere. The Astra Image Corporation designed the symbols (currently used to "write" Klingon) for Star Trek: The Motion Picture , although these symbols are often incorrectly attributed to Michael Okuda . [ 1 ] They based the letters on the Klingon battlecruiser hull markings (three letters) first created by Matt Jeffries , and on Tibetan writing because the script had sharp letter forms—used as a testament to the Klingons' love for bladed weapons. [ edit ] KLI pIqaD
The Epic of Gilgamesh , an epic poem from Mesopotamia , is amongst the earliest surviving works of literature . The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five independent Sumerian poems about 'Bilgamesh' (Sumerian for Gilgamesh ), king of Uruk . Four of these were used as source material for a combined epic in Akkadian . This first, "Old Babylonian" version of the epic dates to the 18th century BC and is titled Shūtur eli sharrī ("Surpassing All Other Kings"). Only a few fragments of it survived.
A logogram , or logograph , is a grapheme which represents a word or a morpheme (the smallest meaningful unit of language). This stands in contrast to phonograms , which represent phonemes (speech sounds) or combinations of phonemes, and determinatives , which mark semantic categories . Logograms are often commonly known also as "ideograms". Strictly speaking, however, ideograms represent ideas directly rather than words and morphemes, and none of the logographic systems described here are truly ideographic. Since logograms are visual symbols representing words rather than the sounds or phonemes that make up the word, it is relatively easier to remember or guess the meaning of logograms, while it might be relatively harder to remember or guess the sound of alphabetic written words.
Alexander Marshack (April 4, 1918 – December 20, 2004) was an American independent scholar and Paleolithic archaeologist . He was born in The Bronx and earned a bachelor's degree in journalism from City College of New York , and worked for many years for Life magazine. [ edit ] Archaeology career Despite lacking a PhD , Marshack became a research associate at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University in 1963 with the support of Hallam L. Movius , giving him access to state and university archaeological collections that he would not otherwise have been able to view. [ 1 ] He rose to public prominence after the publication of The Roots of Civilization in 1972, where he proposed the controversial theory that notches and lines carved on certain Upper Paleolithic bone plaques were in fact notation systems, specifically lunar calendars notating the passage of time . [ 2 ]
A writing system as a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way. This simple explanation encompasses a large spectrum of writing systems with vastly different stylistic and structural characteristics spanning across the many regions of the globe. Writing provides a way of extending human memory by imprinting information into media less fickle than the human brain.
A pictogram , also called a pictogramme or pictograph , [ 1 ] is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object. Pictographs are often used in writing and graphic systems in which the characters are to a considerable extent pictorial in appearance. Pictography is a form of writing which uses representational, pictorial drawings . It is a basis of cuneiform and, to some extent, hieroglyphic writing , which also uses drawings as phonetic letters or determinative rhymes.
These are samples of the clay counters used in the Near East from about 9,000 B.C. (calibrated) to 1500 B.C. There were about 500 distinct types, although not in all times and places. Tokens start to be found at widely separated sites as of 8,000 B.C. (C-14), such as Level III of Tell Mureybet in Syria and Level E of Ganj Dareh in western Iran.