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General history research methods

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How to Read a Book. How to Read a Book was first written in 1940 by Mortimer Adler. He co-authored a heavily revised edition in 1972 with Charles Van Doren, which gives guidelines for critically reading good and great books of any tradition. The 1972 revision, in addition to the first edition, treats genres (poetry, history, science, fiction, et cetera), inspectional and syntopical reading. Overview of the last edition[edit] How to Read a Book is divided into four parts, each consisting of several chapters.

List of books banned by governments. Banned books are books to which free access is not permitted.

List of books banned by governments

The practice of banning books is a form of censorship, from political, religious, moral, or (less often) commercial motives. This page intends to list alphabetically all known banned books, giving a brief context for each. Books are still banned today. The 100 Best Books of All Time. The World Library is a list of the 100 best books, as proposed by one hundred writers from fifty-four different countries, compiled and organized in 2002 by the Norwegian Book Club.

The 100 Best Books of All Time

This list endeavours to reflect world literature, with books from all countries, cultures, and time periods. Eleven of the books included on the list are written by women, eighty-five are written by men and four have unknown authors. Each writer had to select his or her own list of ten books. The books selected by this process and listed here are not ranked or categorized in any way; the organizers have stated that "they are all on an equal footing," with the exception of Don Quixote which was given the distinction "best literary work ever written. " The following list organizes the works alphabetically by author.[1] Fyodor Dostoevsky is the author with the most books on the list, with four. Time's List of the 100 Best Novels. Learning to read. Writing systems[edit] Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that one must usually understand something of the associated spoken language to comprehend the text.[2] Once established, writing systems on the whole change more slowly than their spoken counterparts, and often preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language.

The great benefit of writing systems is their ability to maintain a persistent record of information expressed in a language, which can be retrieved independently of the initial act of formulation.[2] Acquiring reading[edit] Thus, the ideal process of what is called emergent or early literacy[3] begins in the relationship between hearing spoken language, seeing written language and feeling loved. Reading development[edit] There are five stages of reading development. Emerging pre-reader[edit] Novice reader[edit] Reading time at a primary school in rural Laos. Homer on the Internet. Samuel Butler's 1898 translation of Homer Iliad is available at at the Internet Classics Archive at MIT (HTML).

Homer on the Internet

At The Perseus Digital Library, you will find A. T. Murray's 1924 translation of the Iliad. MIT also has Butler's 1900 translation of the Odyssey (HTML). The University of Toronto has Alexander Pope's Preface to the Iliad. Other sites you may wish to consult include: Homeric Fragments; The Homer Homepage; and Richard Hooker's Homer. | Return to the Lecture | The Iliad by Homer. The Odyssey by Homer. The History Guide. KAIROS InBox: Beyond the MLA Handbook (Harnack/Kleppinger) Andrew Harnack and Gene Kleppinger When our rhetoric students need to cite Internet sources in their writing projects, we've found some helpful (but often confusing) style sheets on the net. We like the simplicity of Janice Walker's "MLA-Style Citations for Electronic Sources.

" We note difficulties, however, with her citation of some Internet source information. Other style sheets are similarly inadequate. In our essay linked to this issue of Kairos, we identify four areas of citation practice needing improvement and recommend better models. We think teachers of writing in webbed environments will encounter many situations where students need to know how to cite Internet sources effectively.

We invite all KAIROS readers to peruse our full paper which To pique your interest, here are two of our recommended Works Cited models: For an e-mail discussion list message: Citing Electronic Information in History Papers. By Maurice Crouse Department of History, The University of Memphis <> 8 May 2013 Copyright © 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 by Maurice Crouse. You may freely reproduce this document, provided that you reproduce it in its entirety and without any modification. This document is available in a Slovenian translation by Victor Zdrawlica at Index IntroductionThe Basis of My RecommendationsModels and Examples Individual Works Parts of Works Periodicals and Journals Newspapers and Magazines Abstracts and Reviews of Individual Works Abstracts and Reviews of Periodicals and Journals Electronic Mail (Personal) Electronic Conferences, Interest Groups, Newsgroups (Usenet), and Lists Searches in Online Library Catalogs and Databases Government Publications and Legal DocumentsFinding and Using the Information for CitationsImplications for MethodologyBibliography Crouse, Maurice. 8 May 2013.

U.S. U.S. A Brief Citation Guide for Internet Sources in History and the Humanities. A BRIEF CITATION GUIDE FOR INTERNET SOURCES IN HISTORY AND THE HUMANITIES (Version 2.1) by: Melvin E. Page 20 February 1996 for:H-AFRICA Humanities On-Line andHistory Department University of Natal at Durban Durban, South Africa phone: 27-31-260-3104 fax: 27-31-260-2621 The following suggestions for citations of Internet sources in history and the humanities are derived from the essential principles of academic citation in Kate L. Since version 1.0 appeared, many people have raised issues about both internet and humanities citation standards. Since the Internet is an evolving institution, this Guide is not intended to be definitive. When the need for further revisions and updates become apparent, new versions of the Guide will be issued.

Or through gopher at: <> [path: H-NET E-Mail Discussion Groups/H-AFRICA/Internet Citation Guide] Another problem involves the citation of e-mail correspondence.