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Military history of the United States during World War II. Key American military officials in Europe. The military effort was strongly supported by civilians on the home front, who provided the military personnel, the munitions, the money, and the morale to fight the war to victory. World War II cost the United States an estimated $341 Billion in 1945 dollars - equivalent to 74% of America's GDP and expenditures during the war. In 2015 dollars, the war cost over $4.5 Trillion.[5][6] Origins[edit] American public opinion was hostile to Hitler's Germany, but how much aid to give the Allies was controversial.

Public opinion was even more hostile to Japan, and there was little opposition to increased support for China. By 1940 the U.S., while still neutral, was becoming the "Arsenal of Democracy" for the Allies, supplying money and war materials. American pilots of No 71 'Eagle' Squadron rush to their Hawker Hurricanes, 17 March 1941. American volunteers[edit] Command system[edit] In 1942 President Franklin D. Lend-Lease and Iceland Occupation[edit] United States. Federal republic in North America Coordinates: The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

[h] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area[d] and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles (10.1 million km2). With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.

Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. Contents Etymology The Americas are believed to be named for the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. History Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history Effects on and interaction with native populations European settlements. New Orleans. Consolidated city-parish in Orleans, Louisiana, United States New Orleans (/ˈɔːrl(i)ənz, ɔːrˈliːnz/,[4][5] locally /ˈnɔːrlənz/; French: La Nouvelle-Orléans [la nuvɛlɔʁleɑ̃] ( listen)) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.

The population of the city was 343,829 as of the 2010 U.S. Census.[6][7] The New Orleans metropolitan area (New Orleans–Metairie–Kenner Metropolitan Statistical Area) had a population of 1,167,764 in 2010 and was the 46th largest in the United States.[8] The New Orleans–Metairie–Bogalusa Combined Statistical Area, a larger trading area, had a 2010 population of 1,452,502.[9] Before Hurricane Katrina, Orleans Parish was the most populous parish in Louisiana. As of 2015,[10] it ranked third, trailing neighboring Jefferson Parish and East Baton Rouge Parish.[10] The city of New Orleans is geographically coextensive with Orleans Parish. Names The New Orleans cityscape in early-February 2007 History Beginnings Port Other. National Basketball Association. North American professional sports league The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a professional basketball league in North America.

The league is composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada) and is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. It is the premier men's professional basketball league in the world.[1] The NBA is an active member of USA Basketball (USAB),[7] which is recognized by the FIBA (International Basketball Federation) as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices in Midtown Manhattan, while its NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in Secaucus, New Jersey. History Creation and BAA–NBL merger (1946–1956) On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Anderson, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan, Denver, and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. Other developments. Arizona. Saguaro cactus flowers and buds after a wet winter.

This is Arizona's official state flower. Arizona ( i/ɛrɪˈzoʊnə/; /ærɪˈzoʊnə/) (Navajo: Hoozdo Hahoodzo; O'odham: Alĭ ṣonak) is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western United States and of the Mountain West states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912.

Etymology[edit] There is a misconception that the state's name originated from the Spanish term for "Arid Zone". Geography and geology[edit] Arizona map of Köppen climate classification. Cathedral Rock near Red Rock Crossing in Sedona See also lists of counties, islands, rivers, lakes, state parks, national parks, and national forests. Earthquakes[edit] Climate[edit] History[edit] Demographics[edit] Film[edit] Dam. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English,[1] and before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities.[2] History[edit] Ancient dams[edit] Early dam building took place in Mesopotamia and the Middle East. Dams were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km (16 mi) south of Cairo, was 102 m (335 ft) long at its base and 87 m (285 ft) wide. The structure was built around 2800[5] or 2600 BC[6] as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards.[5][6] During the XIIth dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III and Amenmehat IV dug a canal 16 km (9.9 mi) long linking the Fayum Depression to the Nile in Middle Egypt.

One of the engineering wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Roman engineering[edit] Large dams[edit] Mount St. Helens. Volcano in Washington State Mount St. Helens is most notorious for its major eruption on May 18, 1980, the deadliest and most economically destructive volcanic event in U.S. history.[2] Fifty-seven people were killed; 250 homes, 47 bridges, 15 miles (24 km) of railways, and 185 miles (298 km) of highway were destroyed.

A massive debris avalanche, triggered by an earthquake of magnitude 5.1, caused a lateral eruption[3] that reduced the elevation of the mountain's summit from 9,677 ft (2,950 m) to 8,363 ft (2,549 m), leaving a 1 mile (1.6 km) wide horseshoe-shaped crater.[4] The debris avalanche was up to 0.7 cubic miles (2.9 km3) in volume.

The Mount St. As with most other volcanoes in the Cascade Range, Mount St. Geographic setting and description General A view of St. Mount St. 3-D perspective view of Mount St. Mount St. Prior to the 1980 eruption, Mount St. View of Mount St. April 30, 2015, Mount St. Crater Glacier and other new rock glaciers Summit rim of Mount St. Geologic history St. Caldera. Mount Mazama's eruption timeline, an example of caldera formation A caldera is a large cauldron-like volcanic depression, a type of volcanic crater (from one to dozens of kilometers in diameter), formed by the collapse of an emptied magma chamber.

The depression often originates in very big explosive eruptions. The emptying of this magma chamber may be also be accomplished more gradually by a series of effusive eruptions from the volcanic system, even kilometers away from the magma chamber itself. Etymology[edit] The word comes from Spanish caldera, and this from Latin caldaria, meaning "cooking pot". Caldera formation[edit] Animation of analogue experiment showing origin of volcanic caldera in box filled with flour. Mineralization[edit] Explosive caldera eruptions[edit] If the magma is rich in silica, the caldera is often filled in with ignimbrite, tuff, rhyolite, and other igneous rocks. Toba[edit] At some points in geological time, rhyolitic calderas have appeared in distinct clusters. Iwo Jima. Iwo To (硫黄島, Iō-tō? , "sulfur island"),[2] known in English as Iwo Jima (/ˌiːwoʊ ˈdʒiːmə, ˌiːwə-/[3][4] listen ), is an island of the Japanese Volcano Islands chain south of the Ogasawara Islands and together with them form the Ogasawara Archipelago also known as the Bonin Islands.

The island of 21 km2 (8 square miles) is 1,200 kilometres (750 mi; 650 nmi) south of mainland Tokyo and is administered as part of Ogasawara, one of the eight villages of Tokyo (though it is uninhabited). It is famous as the setting of the February–March 1945 Battle of Iwo Jima involving the United States and elements of the British Pacific Fleet versus the Empire of Japan during World War II. The island grew in recognition in the west when the iconic photograph Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima was taken on Mount Suribachi, the highest point at 160 metres (528 feet), during the battle by Associated Press photographer Joe Rosenthal. The U.S. occupied Iwo Jima until 1968 when it was returned to Japan.