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Javanotes 6.0, Section 1.2 -- Asynchronous Events: Polling Loops and Interrupts. Section 1.2 The CPU spends almost all of its time fetching instructions from memory and executing them. However, the CPU and main memory are only two out of many components in a real computer system. A complete system contains other devices such as: A hard disk for storing programs and data files. (Note that main memory holds only a comparatively small amount of information, and holds it only as long as the power is turned on.

A hard disk is used for permanent storage of larger amounts of information, but programs have to be loaded from disk into main memory before they can actually be executed.) The list of devices is entirely open ended, and computer systems are built so that they can easily be expanded by adding new devices. A computer system consisting of many devices is typically organized by connecting those devices to one or more busses. Now, devices such as keyboard, mouse, and network interface can produce input that needs to be processed by the CPU. Unknown Vulnerability Management | Codenomicon Defensics. Introduction | Whitepapers | Webcasts In all forms of cyber attacks, the access into the system or device is enabled by a vulnerability in the code.

Thus, the number one security priority should be finding and fixing vulnerabilities in both in-house and third-party developed code. Vulnerability management is often understood as scanning for known vulnerabilities, but finding the unknown vulnerabilities is equally important. "Unknown zero-day vulnerabilities are the greatest threat to Enterprise networks.

The Unknown Vulnerability Management process introduced by Codenomicon enables you to find and mitigate these weaknesses proactively" - Ari Takanen, CTO of Codenomicon. There are two types of vulnerabilities: known and unknown. Known vulnerabilities have already been found and reported. The best way to discover unknown vulnerabilities is Fuzzing, a form of attack simulation, in which vulnerabilities are triggered by abnormal inputs. Codenomicon UVM Process Phase 1: Analyze Phase 2: Test. NSA Said to Exploit Heartbleed Bug for Intelligence for Years. The U.S. National Security Agency knew for at least two years about a flaw in the way that many websites send sensitive information, now dubbed the Heartbleed bug, and regularly used it to gather critical intelligence, two people familiar with the matter said. The NSA’s decision to keep the bug secret in pursuit of national security interests threatens to renew the rancorous debate over the role of the government’s top computer experts.

Heartbleed appears to be one of the biggest glitches in the Internet’s history, a flaw in the basic security of as many as two-thirds of the world’s websites. Its discovery and the creation of a fix by researchers five days ago prompted consumers to change their passwords, the Canadian government to suspend electronic tax filing and computer companies including Cisco Systems Inc. to Juniper Networks Inc. to provide patches for their systems. Related: Controversial Practice Free Code Serious Flaws Flawed Protocol Ordinary Data SSL Protocol. List of Seismic Data Collection Companies Worldwide.

History

Communications & Cyber Intelligence. Verint is a leader in communications and cyber intelligence solutions that help law enforcement, national security, intelligence, and other government agencies detect, investigate, and neutralize criminal and terrorist threats. We provide these agencies with tools and technology to help them address the challenges they face and achieve their mission: Increasingly complex communications networks and growing network traffic.

Agencies authorized to intercept communications require technically advanced solutions that accommodate sophisticated communications networks and a vast amount of communications and data.Highly complex investigations that involve collecting and analyzing information from multiple sources. The Verint Communications and Cyber Intelligence Solutions Portfolio Designed to quickly make sense of complex scenarios, Communications and Cyber Intelligence Solutions readily handle vast amounts of data from a wide variety of sources. Our portfolio includes solutions for: Hacking Secret Ciphers with Python - Chapters. Chapter 1 Read online: Chapter 1 - Making Paper Cryptography Tools PDF of the Caesar Cipher WheelInteractive Virtual Cipher Wheel Chapter 2 Read online: Chapter 2 - Downloading and Installing Python Download Python 3Download pyperclip.py Chapter 3 Read online: Chapter 3 - The Interactive Shell Chapter 4 Read online: Chapter 4 - String and Writing Programs Download source: hello.py Copy source to clipboard: Use the online diff tool to find typos in your code: hello.py Chapter 5 Read online: Chapter 5 - The Reverse Cipher Download source: reverseCipher.py Use the online diff tool to find typos in your code: reverseCipher.py Chapter 6 Read online: Chapter 6 - The Caesar Cipher Download source: caesarCipher.py Use the online diff tool to find typos in your code: caesarCipher.py Download source: caesarCipher2.py Use the online diff tool to find typos in your code: caesarCipher2.py Download source: password.py Use the online diff tool to find typos in your code: password.py Download source: password2.py Chapter 7.

Users.ecs.soton.ac.uk/ajgh/egrover.pdf. 6613/1/Dualism0409.

Cryptography

Computer English,Science Language for Computers,Terms,Definitions. Bitcoin. Linear Complexity and Random Sequences. The problem of characterizing the randomness of finite sequences arises in cryptographic applications. The idea of randomness clearly reflects the difficulty of predicting the next digit of a sequence from all the previous ones. The approach taken in this paper is to measure the (linear) unpredictability of a sequence (finite or periodic) by the length of the shortest linear feedback shift register (LFSR) that is able to generate the given sequence.

This length is often referred to in the literature as the linear complexity of the sequence. It is shown that the expected linear complexity of a sequence of n independent and uniformly distributed binary random variables is very close to n/2 and, that the variance of the linear complexity is virtually independent of the sequence length, i.e. is virtually a constant!

How Packet Travels in Network ( 3D Animation ) Www1.cs.columbia.edu/~angelos/Papers/hydan.pdf. Hash list. A hash list with a top hash A hash list is an extension of the old concept of hashing an item (for instance, a file). A hash list is usually sufficient for most needs, but a more advanced form of the concept is a hash tree. Hash lists can be used to protect any kind of data stored, handled and transferred in and between computers. An important use of hash lists is to make sure that data blocks received from other peers in a peer-to-peer network are received undamaged and unaltered, and to check that the other peers do not "lie" and send fake blocks. Usually a cryptographic hash function such as SHA-1 is used for the hashing. Hash lists are better than a simple hash of the entire file since, in the case of a data block being damaged, this is noticed, and only the damaged block needs to be redownloaded.

Root hash[edit] Often, an additional hash of the hash list itself (a top hash, also called root hash or master hash) is used. See also[edit] Www.copyright.gov/legislation/dmca. What Are Magnet Links, and How Do I Use Them to Download Torrents? Magnet links are not nessesarily "tracker-free". Here's and example of a magnet link from "The Piratebay" (no, it does not link to copyrighted content): magnet:? Xt=urn:btih:d2d30ab2a7b22f6af5ca5c5b8af6b7...

&dn=test_testing_02&tr=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.openbittorrent.com%3A80&tr=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.publicbt.com%3A80&tr=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.ccc.de%3A80 Note how their clearly is a tracker in the link contents? Yes, it is possible to have trackerless magnet links (using DHT only), but it is just as possible to have trackerless torrent files.

The only difference (from the users point of view) between Magnet Links and Torrent files is that a magnet link is just that, a link, whereas a torrent file contains a whole bunch of metadata (like the directory structure of the torrent, etc). Welcome to NetNeutrals - [Select Review Option] Independent Feedback Review (IFR) is a process that uses a third party Neutral to determine whether the feedback should be removed. The Neutral's decision is final and, once posted, will not be changed. There is a nominal fee charged for this process and it is only available for eBay Motors items in a specific category. Feedback will be removed if the neutral determines a party's argument clearly and convincingly meets at least one of the 4 criteria for feedback removal.

This is a one-time fee for this dispute. PLEASE ONLY PAY ONCE. Criteria considered for Feedback removal: Did the member leaving the feedback not demonstrate a good faith effort to complete the transaction? The Awesome Ways Big Data Is Used Today To Change Our World. Case Examples. Zombie Cookie - Cookie Controller. What are Zombie Cookies? They are cookies that rise from the dead come back to life after you kill or delete them. It was first identified by UC Berkley. They noticed that they were deleting cookies, but they kept coming back over and over again. No amount of deleting them would kill them. Differences between Zombie Cookies & regular cookies.

How do they work exactly? You visit the website again, and they retrieve those cookies. You can block them or delete them, and that’s that. How do they work exactly? You block or delete regular cookies. You visit the website again, they check for regular cookies – No luck? They check for Adobe Flash cookies, which are EXACTLY the same, if not even more detailed (remember 4kb vs. 100kb). Who used them? Purposes of using them. Since Zombie cookies have a bigger size, they store more, detailed information about users’ behavior.

Privacy Breach Fact: almost 98% of computers have Adobe Flash, which means almost everyone is exposed to Zombie Cookies. Wireshark · Go Deep. Network Monitoring. Back Introduction A dedicated Firewall is the first step to securing a network, the next step is to be able to analyze and monitor the network. A Network Administrator will want to know things like what the bandwidth usage is and where the open ports and security flaws are. Here are several programs to help monitor and secure a network. KNetLoad -- A Network Load Monitor KNetLoad is a Network Load Monitor applet for Kicker, the KDE panel. You can monitor how many interfaces you want, and for every interface it will show you two graphs, one for incoming and one for outgoing load. To install the program go Applications -> Add/Remove Software.

Wireshark -- A Network Protocol Analyzer Wireshark is a network traffic analyzer, or sniffer. Wireshark can be installed in either user or root mode, but both must be installed for the root version to work. To capture packets first choose which interface to 'listen' to. Wireshark Click on the image Etherape -- A Graphical Network Monitor Etherape Snort. How PGP works. How PGP works The following text is taken from chapter 1 of the document Introduction to Cryptography in the PGP 6.5.1 documentation.

Copyright © 1990-1999 Network Associates, Inc. and its Affiliated Companies. All Rights Reserved. Converted from PDF to HTML at and then manually edited by hand. The Basics of Cryptography When Julius Caesar sent messages to his generals, he didn't trust his messengers. And so we begin. Encryption and decryption Data that can be read and understood without any special measures is called plaintext or cleartext. Figure 1-1. What is cryptography? Cryptography is the science of using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data. While cryptography is the science of securing data, cryptanalysis is the science of analyzing and breaking secure communication. Cryptology embraces both cryptography and cryptanalysis.

Strong cryptography --Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C. How does cryptography work? Keys. Relay Configuration Instructions. The Tor network relies on volunteers to donate bandwidth. The more people who run relays, the faster the Tor network will be. If you have at least 2 megabits/s for both upload and download, please help out Tor by configuring your Tor to be a relay too. You can run a Tor relay on pretty much any operating system. Tor relays work best on current distributions of Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, and Windows Server. The best approach for most users is to run your relay on Debian or Ubuntu using the system Tor package — the deb takes care of running Tor as a separate user, making sure it has enough file descriptors available, starting it at boot, and so on. Configure Tor by editing the torrc file Tor's configuration file is named 'torrc'.

Locate the file on your system, open it with a text editor and add the following lines: ORPort 443 Exitpolicy reject *:* Nickname ididntedittheconfig ContactInfo human@... Tor will use all your bandwidth if you don't set limits for it. Make sure your relay is reachable. Public Keys and Private Keys - How they work with Encryption | Comodo. The Public and Private key pair comprise of two uniquely related cryptographic keys (basically long random numbers).

Below is an example of a Public Key: The Public Key is what its name suggests - Public. It is made available to everyone via a publicly accessible repository or directory. On the other hand, the Private Key must remain confidential to its respective owner. Because the key pair is mathematically related, whatever is encrypted with a Public Key may only be decrypted by its corresponding Private Key and vice versa. For example, if Bob wants to send sensitive data to Alice, and wants to be sure that only Alice may be able to read it, he will encrypt the data with Alice's Public Key. Only Alice has access to her corresponding Private Key and as a result is the only person with the capability of decrypting the encrypted data back into its original form. As only Alice has access to her Private Key, it is possible that only Alice can decrypt the encrypted data. Onion Routing. Understanding The NSA Vocabulary in NSA.

Digital Due Process :: About the Issue. "The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause... " - Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution ECPA Reform: Why Now? The Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) was a forward-looking statute when enacted in 1986.

It specified standards for law enforcement access to electronic communications and associated data, affording important privacy protections to subscribers of emerging wireless and Internet technologies. As a result, ECPA is a patchwork of confusing standards that have been interpreted inconsistently by the courts, creating uncertainty for both service providers and law enforcement agencies. The time for an update to ECPA is now. Changes in Technology Have Outpaced the Law Justice Brandeis famously called privacy “the most comprehensive of rights, and the right most valued by a free people.” 1. 2. 3. 4. Www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/cryptologic_quarterly/Unofficial_Vocabulary.pdf. HackerspaceWiki.

BytezAutomations. Information Advantage. Frequently asked questions. Www.intelligence.senate.gov/pdfs94th/94rules_of_procedure_governmental_operations.pdf. Explore the National Security Agency (NSA)