SOURCE #1 Auschwitz Concentration Camp The Gas Chambers. Auschwitz Concentration Camp The Gas Chambers & Crematoria Mass Extermination A special commission of doctors arrived in Auschwitz Concentration Camp on 28 July 1941, and select unfit prisoners mostly from Block 15 to be murdered in one of the Euthanasia killing centres.
SOURCE #2 First American Report on Holocaust. On July 22, 1942—seventy-two years ago to this day—the first inhabitants of the Warsaw Ghetto were placed in rail cars and deported to Nazi concentration camps.
Accounts of exact numbers vary, but less than six months later, the ghetto held only approximately 50,000 of the original 550,000 Jews. The rest had been deported. SOURCE #3 Holocaust Survivors Tell the Stories of Their Childhood. SOURCE #4 German Railways and the Holocaust. The Wannsee Conference was held on January 20, 1942, in Berlin, to coordinate the implementation of the proposed "Final Solution".
At Wannsee, the SS estimated that the "Final Solution"--which was already under way--would ultimately involve 11 million European Jews; Nazi planners envisioned the inclusion of Jews living in neutral or non-occupied countries such as Ireland, Sweden, Turkey, and Great Britain. The European rail network played a crucial role in the implementation of the "Final Solution. " Jews from Germany and German-occupied Europe were deported by rail to the killing centers in occupied Poland. SOURCE #5 Introduction to the Holocaust.
The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators.
Holocaust is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire. " SOURCE #6 Holocaust Timeline. Jump to: 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1933 January 30, 1933 - Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany a nation with a Jewish population of 566,000.
February 22, 1933 - 40,000 SA and SS men are sworn in as auxiliary police. February 27, 1933 - Nazis burn Reichstag building to create crisis atmosphere. February 28, 1933 - Emergency powers granted to Hitler as a result of the Reichstag fire. March 22, 1933 - Nazis open Dachau concentration camp near Munich, to be followed by Buchenwald near Weimar in central Germany, Sachsenhausen near Berlin in northern Germany, and Ravensbrück for women. March 24, 1933 - German Parliament passes Enabling Act giving Hitler dictatorial powers. SOURCE #7 Medical Experiments of the Holocaust and Nazi Medicine. SOURCE #8 I escaped from Auschwitz. SOURCE #10 Horror Stories from the Gas Chambers of Auschwitz. 350 Reports from Other Camps I will now describe the crematoriums and the transports.
SOURCE #11 Roll Call (Appel) - Concentration Camps - Key Stage 3 - The Holocaust Explained. As in the concentration camps, those prisoners selected for work faced appalling conditions and severe treatment.
After being woken at dawn, they would have to stand in line for the roll call and endure many hours of hard labour. At the end of the working day, exhausted, they returned to the camp, when they would once again have to stand in line for evening roll call. During roll call (appell) prisoners would have to stand still, wearing very thin clothing, in all weathers and for hours on end.
The block kapo would count the number of prisoners before reporting to the SS officer. If the number of prisoners appeared not to be correct, it would take hours until the SS officer finally made the numbers tally. Roll calls were often used as a punishment to prisoners. This treatment was used to teach the other prisoners that it was pointless to resist.
SOURCE #12 Living Conditions, Labor & Executions at Auschwitz-Birkenau. SOURCE #13 Gale Cengage Product Failure. SOURCE #14 Auschwitz Transport and Arrival - Key Stage 3 - The Holocaust Explained. The first trains carrying Jews arrived at Auschwitz-Birkenau in March 1942.
Often several trains arrived daily carrying Jews from almost every country in Europe. Each of the trains carried in excess of a thousand victims. Prisoners had been packed into cattle wagons with no room to sit, no food, a bucket for water and another as a toilet. The journey could last days on end, with the ‘passengers’ not knowing where they were passing through or where they were going. Many victims died during the journey as a result of suffocation, illness or hunger. Initially, arrivals at Auschwitz-Birkenau would be unloaded on a ‘ramp’ alongside the main railway lines at Oswiecim.
SOURCE #15 Meals in the Concentration Camps - Key Stage 3 - The Holocaust Explained. Meal times were the most important event of each day.
After morning roll call the prisoners would be given their morning ‘meal’ – imitation coffee or herbal ‘tea’. For lunch prisoners would be given a litre of watery soup. If they were lucky, they might find a piece of turnip or potato peel. SOURCE #16 Auschwitz: Inside the Nazi State . Auschwitz 1940-1945 . The Killing Evolution. Funeral of inmates who died or were killed just prior to liberation The Nazis did not start World War II with a plan to eliminate the Jews.
This solution evolved—especially from 1939 to 1941—as they tried different techniques to accomplish their goals. Particularly in Germany and Poland camp commandants experimented with various killing methodologies and consulted with one another on their successes and failures. The ability of a single camp to kill 2,000-3,000 people per hour took years to achieve. At first, though, murder was done at close range-man-to-man, woman, or child.
Death by Firing Squad In 1941, SS General Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski told his superior Heinrich Himmler that the Nazis had been murdering Jews, including women and children, at close range and in cold blood all summer. Einsatzgruppen killing Himmler realized he had to find new methods that would spare his troops the psychological strain of killing human beings at close range. Carbon Monoxide Hell Vans Zyklon B. SOURCE #17 Liberation of Nazi Camps. As Allied troops moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Nazi Germany, they began to encounter tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners. Many of these prisoners had survived forced marches into the interior of Germany from camps in occupied Poland. These prisoners were suffering from starvation and disease.
SOURCE #18 Uniform and clothing in the Concentration Camps - Key Stage 3 - The Holocaust Explained. On arrival at concentration camps prisoners had their clothing taken away, often to be replaced by a striped uniform (now known as striped pyjamas). Men would wear a vest, trousers, hat and coat. Women would be supplied a smock type dress. On their feet prisoners wore wooden or leather clogs. As socks were not supplied, clogs would rub on feet and ankles, causing foot sores.