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Morphotactics represent the ordering restrictions in place on the ordering of morphemes . Etymologically, it can be translated as "the set of rules that define how morphemes (morpho) can touch (tactics) each other". [ edit ] Example of a morphotactic rules (in English) Plural ^s follows Noun ^z cannot follow Noun
In most theories of linguistics , human languages are thought to consist of two parts: a lexicon, essentially a catalogue of a given language's words (its wordstock ), and a grammar , a system of rules which allow for the combination of those words into meaningful sentences. The lexicon is also thought to include bound morphemes , which cannot stand alone as words (such as most affixes ). In some analyses, compound words and certain classes of idiomatic expressions and other collocations are also considered to be part of the lexicon.
In linguistic morphology and information retrieval , stemming is the process for reducing inflected (or sometimes derived) words to their stem , base or root form—generally a written word form. The stem need not be identical to the morphological root of the word; it is usually sufficient that related words map to the same stem, even if this stem is not in itself a valid root.
In linguistics , a morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. The field of study dedicated to morphemes is called morphology . A morpheme is not identical to a word , and the principal difference between the two is that a morpheme may or may not stand alone, whereas a word, by definition, is freestanding.
In morphology and syntax , a clitic is a morpheme that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase. [ 1 ] It is pronounced like an affix , but works at the phrase level. For example, the word an is a clitic in the phrase: an apple Clitics can belong to any grammatical category, although they are commonly pronouns , determiners , or adpositions . Note that orthography is not a good guide for identifying clitics: clitics may be written as independent words, bound affixes, or separated by special characters (e.g., an apostrophe). [ citation needed ] [ edit ] Classification
Inflection of the Portuguese or Spanish lexeme for "cat". Blue represents the masculine gender, pink represents the feminine gender, grey represents the form used for mixed-gender, and green represents the plural number; the singular is unmarked. In grammar , inflection or inflexion is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense , grammatical mood , grammatical voice , aspect , person , number , gender and case . Conjugation is the inflection of verbs ; declension is the inflection of nouns , adjectives and pronouns . An inflection expresses one or more grammatical categories with an explicitly stated prefix, suffix, or infix, or another internal modification such as a vowel change. [ 1 ] For example, the Latin ducam , meaning "I will lead", includes an explicit suffix, -am , expressing person (first), number (singular), and tense (future). The use of this suffix is an inflection.
In linguistics , a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word ) that consists of more than one stem . Compounding or composition is the process of word formation that creates compound lexemes (the other word-formation process being derivation ). That is, in familiar terms, compounding occurs when two or more words are joined together to make them one word. The meaning of the compound may be very different from the meanings of its components in isolation. [ edit ] Formation of compounds
In linguistics , derivation is the process of forming a new word on the basis of an existing word, e.g. happi-ness and un-happy from happy , or determination from determine . Derivation stands in contrast to the process of inflection , which uses another kind of affix in order to form grammatical variants of the same word, as with determine/determine-s/determin-ing/determin-ed . [ 1 ] Generally speaking, inflection applies to all members of a part of speech (e.g., every English verb has a past-tense form), while derivation applies only to some members of a part of speech (e.g., the nominalizing suffix -ity can be used with the adjectives modern and dense , but not with open or strong ). A derivational suffix usually applies to words of one syntactic category and changes them into words of another syntactic category .
An affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word. Affixes may be derivational , like English -ness and pre- , or inflectional , like English plural -s and past tense -ed . They are bound morphemes by definition; prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes . Affixation is, thus, the linguistic process speakers use to form different words by adding morphemes (affixes) at the beginning (prefixation), the middle (infixation) or the end (suffixation) of words. [ edit ] Positional categories of affixes
In linguistics , a stem is a part of a word. The term is used with slightly different meanings. In one usage, a stem is a form to which affixes can be attached. [ 1 ] Thus, in this usage, the English word friendships contains the stem friend , to which the derivational suffix -ship is attached to form a new stem friendship , to which the inflectional suffix -s is attached. In a variant of this usage, the root of the word (in the example, friend ) is not counted as a stem. In a slightly different usage, which is adopted in the remainder of this article, a word has a single stem, namely the part of the word that is common to all its inflected variants. [ 2 ] Thus, in this usage, all derivational affixes are part of the stem.
In corpus linguistics , part-of-speech tagging ( POS tagging or POST ), also called grammatical tagging or word-category disambiguation , is the process of marking up a word in a text (corpus) as corresponding to a particular part of speech , based on both its definition, as well as its context—i.e. relationship with adjacent and related words in a phrase , sentence , or paragraph . A simplified form of this is commonly taught to school-age children, in the identification of words as nouns , verbs , adjectives , adverbs , etc.
A finite state transducer ( FST ) is a finite state machine with two tapes: an input tape and an output tape.