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In philosophy and mathematical logic , mereology (from the Greek μέρος, root: μερε(σ)-, "part" and the suffix -logy "study, discussion, science") treats parts and the wholes they form.
The holographic principle is a property of quantum gravity and string theories which states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a boundary to the region—preferably a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon . First proposed by Gerard 't Hooft , it was given a precise string-theory interpretation by Leonard Susskind [ 1 ] who combined his ideas with previous ones of 't Hooft and Charles Thorn . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] As pointed out by Raphael Bousso , [ 3 ] Thorn observed in 1978 that string theory admits a lower dimensional description in which gravity emerges from it in what would now be called a holographic way. In a larger and more speculative sense, the theory suggests that the entire universe can be seen as a two-dimensional information structure "painted" on the cosmological horizon , such that the three dimensions we observe are only an effective description at macroscopic scales and at low energies .
Direct realism argues we perceive the world directly The question of direct or "naïve" realism, as opposed to indirect or "representational" realism, arises in the philosophy of perception and of mind out of the debate over the nature of conscious experience ; [ 1 ] [ 2 ] the epistemological question of whether the world we see around us is the real world itself or merely an internal perceptual copy of that world generated by neural processes in our brain .
In condensed matter physics , the term geometrical frustration (or in short: frustration [ 1 ] ) refers to a phenomenon, where atoms tend to stick to non-trivial positions or where, on a regular crystal lattice , conflicting inter-atomic forces (each one favoring rather simple, but different structures) lead to quite complex structures.
Neutral monism , in philosophy , is the metaphysical view that the mental and the physical are two ways of organizing or describing the same elements, which are themselves "neutral," that is, neither physical nor mental. This view denies that the mental and the physical are two fundamentally different things. Rather, neutral monism claims the universe consists of only one kind of stuff, in the form of neutral elements that are in themselves neither mental nor physical.
An unobservable (also called impalpable ) is an entity whose existence, nature, properties, qualities or relations are not directly observable by humans. In philosophy of science typical examples of "unobservables" are atomic particles , the force of gravity , causation and beliefs or desires [ citation needed ] .
In condensed matter physics , a string-net is an extended object whose collective behavior has been proposed as a physical mechanism for topological order by Michael A.
According to David Bohm 's theory, implicate and explicate orders are characterised by: In the enfolded [or implicate] order, space and time are no longer the dominant factors determining the relationships of dependence or independence of different elements. Rather, an entirely different sort of basic connection of elements is possible, from which our ordinary notions of space and time, along with those of separately existent material particles, are abstracted as forms derived from the deeper order.
WIE: Why did you feel it was important, at this time, to write a biography of David Bohm ?
First published Mon Aug 13, 2001; substantive revision Thu Aug 26, 2010
First published Fri Oct 26, 2001; substantive revision Mon Mar 4, 2013 Bohmian mechanics, which is also called the de Broglie-Bohm theory, the pilot-wave model, and the causal interpretation of quantum mechanics, is a version of quantum theory discovered by Louis de Broglie in 1927 and rediscovered by David Bohm in 1952. It is the simplest example of what is often called a hidden variables interpretation of quantum mechanics.