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10(n) Volcanism : Volcanoes. A volcano is generally a conical shaped hill or mountain built by accumulations of lava flows, tephra, and volcanic ash.

10(n) Volcanism : Volcanoes

About 95% of active volcanoes occur at the plate subduction zones and at the mid-oceanic ridges (Figure 10n-1). The other 5% occur in areas associated with lithospheric hot spots. These hot spots have no direct relationships with areas of crustal creation or subduction zones. It is believed that hot spots are caused by plumes of rising magma that have their origin within the asthenosphere. Over the last 2 million years, volcanoes have been depositing lava, tephra, and ash in particular areas of the globe (Figure 10n-2).

Not all volcanoes are the same. The least explosive type of volcano is called a basalt plateau. Some basaltic magmas can produce very large slightly sloping volcanoes, 6 to 12°, that have gently flowing magmas called shield volcanoes (see link). Composite volcanoes are made from alternate layers of lava flows and exploded rock (see link).


Tutorial - Description, Dialogue, & Action. By Jessica Barnes This article was last updated December 12th, 2008.

Tutorial - Description, Dialogue, & Action

Thanks to everyone who provided suggestions! So, you've got the perfect story: a great character, your basic plot, a world, and hey—maybe you've even sketched out a few scenes. But there's just a few things missing—maybe the dialogue just doesn't seem to work, or your action scenes don't seem realistic. Tutorial - Villains: *Bad* Bad Guys and *Good* Bad Guys. By A.R.

Tutorial - Villains: *Bad* Bad Guys and *Good* Bad Guys

George 'Ah, Reader. So glad you could join me.' *strokes cat ominously* Tutorial - Creating Fantasy and Science Fiction Worlds. By A.R.

Tutorial - Creating Fantasy and Science Fiction Worlds

George Everybody says, "My topic is the most important thing you can learn in order to write science fiction and fantasy," when they write a tutorial for FARP. But I'm actually not exaggerating. The art of creating worlds is crucial to good Fantasy and Science Fiction. There are four basic parts of a story: plot, character, setting, and theme. But what sets Fantasy and Science Fiction apart from other genres is the setting.

30 Days of Worldbuilding

Soulmate code? Need help coming up with phrases. Designing An Insane Asylum. What limits an empire from getting bigger? How Important is Blood in Your World? How to write a communist-socialist-cross government? Swearing and general rough-housing. I need a global disaster. Multiple moons? Fantasy World Building: Star systems and other external influences. Fictional Ecosystems for Fantasy World Building. Once you have recognized and listed the major Ecosystems of your fictional world, you may want to explore them further.

Fictional Ecosystems for Fantasy World Building

World Building Worksheets Part One. Creating Fantasy Nations (World Building II) By this point you've got your map and the basics for one of your ideas.

Creating Fantasy Nations (World Building II)

It's time to put people on these continents. If you haven't already, ask yourself the basics about each culture you want to generate. Religion in fantasy novels. Since no one burned my house down after the Tolkien post, I’m going out on a limb here and talk to you about using religion in your fantasy novels.

religion in fantasy novels

Generally speaking, when building worlds in fantasy novels, the religions of your world will be a reflection of the religions here on good old planet earth. So I’m going to offer a few suggestions – take them or leave them: Know thy religion. If you’re basing your world’s religion on an existing faith thoroughly understand those beliefs. World Builders Home Page Build Your Own World!!! Civilizations Calculator. This calculator determines the numbers of suitable stars, planets, life-bearing planets, and civilizations which might arise in a galaxy.

Civilizations Calculator

The algorithm includes numerous factors that can influence the number of advanced, species-wide civilizations which might arise in a galaxy during the era when life and civilization can arise. Click here for general information and on the topics for more specific information. Tutorial - 10 Steps to Creating Realistic Fantasy Animals. By Ashley Lange Why do writers write?

Tutorial - 10 Steps to Creating Realistic Fantasy Animals

Because it isn't there. Main Page - Educated Worldbuilding. World Building.docx. Let Me Explain To You A Thing. Building the Perfect Beast. Sarah Jane Elliott ©2001, Sarah Jane Elliott There are 1.5 million identified species on this great and wonderful planet of ours, representing only a fraction of the species actually out there.

Building the Perfect Beast

Current evidence shows that the total number may be anywhere from ten to thirty million. Internet Resources - Writers Resources - Writing Links & Writers Links for Writers - Fiction Writing. Making Histories. One way to coax the reader into accepting the setting of your story as genuine is to build your world on a convincing history.

In SF, this generally takes the form of a future history--of Earth, other planets, or both. The General Character of History Though he's not without his flaws, one of my favorite historians is Arnold Toynbee, author of the ten-volume Study of History, and I'm starting off with one of his major conclusions: that history is accidental and chaotic. This follows from his observation that environment--physical and intellectual--is the key force behind shaping civilizations, as opposed to race or biology.

Biology is a limiting factor on culture--and therefore on civilizations, which are born from cultures--but environment is far more important. So, forget the idea of any event being inevitable, and watch out for extrapolating too faithfully from contemporary trends; the future isn't bound to realize our expectations. Approaches to Inventing History. Matching Your Money to Your World. There has been discussion in many places concerning money in speculative fiction. Many people adhere to the common currencies of gold, silver, and bronze.

Others, especially science fiction writers, will use the ubiquitous ‘credit’ system. Each of these has its place, but any system must be matched to the appropriate world atmosphere. If your world is very young, doesn’t have established governments, and survives on individual farming and small towns, you will likely want to rely on a barter system. It is not an easy system to deal with from a writing standpoint because you will need to make the trading difficult in order to capture the flavor of that system. Traditional medieval settings fit well with hard money. A dominant government system allows for certificates of deposit (paper money that represents hard currency deposits) or fiat money (money that has no hard deposit backing it). Future, non-apocalyptic worlds will likely also rely on fiat money. Mythology. 30 Days of WorldBuilding. By popular demand, you can now download the Magical WorldBuilder Guide in three easy-to-carry (non-DRM) formats: PDF for printing out at home or reading on a computerePub for use with many fine ereader devicesMOBI for use with Kindles and MobiPocket software.As of 2007, The world-builder exercises are licensed under a Creative Commons license to help you in deciding whether you can translate (yes, with credit back), distribute to your writing group (yes, with credit), sell (not without permission), reprint (yes, for non-commercial purposes), or mirror (yes, with credit back) this useful guide!

In October, 2004, I posted 30 days of world-building exercises to the NaNoWriMo discussion forums. Questions to guide you in worldbuilding for fantasy or science-fiction — Veronica Sicoe. I’ve been busy worldbuilding this week. It’s one of my favorite things to do in the process of writing sci-fi, and it makes me all giddy and drooly like a kid that’s been dropped into a toybox.

Since I revisited my collected materials for the worlds I’m writing in, and have overhauled one of these entirely, I grabbed the opportunity to put together a list of important worldbuilding questions to share with you. Not every author goes about worldbuilding the same way — and that’s perfectly fine, since not every genre needs it, and not every story is focused primarily on the setting. Also, not all aspects of a world or society are equally relevant to that particular plot. Timeline Generator. Games: Roleplaying: World Building.

Worldbuilding. World Builder Projects. The Mythopoet's Manual - Contents. List of forms of government. Government of any kind currently affects every human activity in many important ways. For this reason, political scientists generally argue that government should not be studied by itself; but should be studied along with anthropology, economics, history, philosophy, science, and sociology. Political science Etymology From Middle English government,[citation needed] from Old French government[citation needed] (French gouvernement), from Latin gubernatio ("management, government"). Sample World-Building Questions, By Request. THE WORLD DREAM BANK: PLANETOCOPIA.

Template for Creating and Building a New Fantasy Race for your Fictional World. In fantasy world building and writing, the term "race" is loosely used to describe a sentient or sapient life form with a similar degree of intelligence and awareness as that of a human.