NPTEL. Biology. History The objects of our research will be the different forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which these phenomena occur, and the causes through which they have been effected.
The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology [Biologie] or the doctrine of life [Lebenslehre]. Although modern biology is a relatively recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indian subcontinent, and China. However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece. While the formal study of medicine dates back to Hippocrates (ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC), it was Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Evolution. Evolution is the change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins. In the early 20th century, genetics was integrated with Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection through the discipline of population genetics. The importance of natural selection as a cause of evolution was accepted into other branches of biology. Moreover, previously held notions about evolution, such as orthogenesis and "progress" became obsolete. Scientists continue to study various aspects of evolution by forming and testing hypotheses, constructing scientific theories, using observational data, and performing experiments in both the field and the laboratory. Проблемы эволюции.
Water - ice transition. Methods The multi-frame model was prepared by Angel Herráez from molecular dynamics data kindly provided by Luboš Vrbka (Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Prague).
Dr. Vrbka's data were converted from Gromacs .gro to pdb format using the editconf program, then existing dummy atoms for electron centers were removed and everything was collated into a single multi-frame pdb file. Science tips. Further information about weather and climate can be found in MS TIPS Benchmarks E.8.A.2 MS TIPS Benchmarks E.8.A.4 MS TIPS Benchmarks E.8.A.5 MS TIPS Benchmarks E.8.A.6 The stability of these molecular bonds provides for a very stable molecule.
АСТРОНОМИЯ, АЛГЕБРА, ГЕОМЕТРИЯ, ФИЗИКА. Dinararabbit - Все о снежинках.
Math. Где в Рунете найти качественные научные форумы. 100N.pdf. Форум журнала «НАУКА И ЖИЗНЬ» Philosophy. History. World Historical Maps. Skip to Content Libraries Home | Mobile | My Account | Renew Items | Sitemap | Help | University of Texas Libraries.
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