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Mental Illness Defined as Disruption in Neural Circuits. Pulses of blue and yellow light precisely turn neurons on-and-off using genetically-targeted probes that take advantage of light-sensitive genes borrowed from primitive life-forms. Artist’s rendering. Source: Karl Deisseroth, M.D., Ph.D., Stanford University It has become an NIMH mantra to describe mental disorders as brain disorders.

What does this mean? Is it accurate to group schizophrenia, depression, and ADHD together with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease? Is a neurologic approach to mental disorders helpful or does this focus on the brain lead to less attention to the mind? First, mental disorders appear to be disorders of brain circuits, in contrast to classical neurological disorders in which focal lesions are apparent.

Has brain imaging been useful for understanding mental disorders? A brain disorder approach also may transform the way we diagnose mental disorders. But we need to recognize the range of unknowns that remain. Choroby rzadkie: Hiperamonemia typu II - wrodzony niedobór OTC. Hiperamonemia to stan nieprawidłowy polegający na podwyższeniu poziomu amoniaku we krwi, czyli ponad 80 umol/l, a u noworodków ponad 110 umol/l. Amoniak (NH3) jest produkowany przez bakterie jelitowe i powstaje w naszym organizmie jako produkt uboczny rozkładu białek. W warunkach normalnych, czyli u zdrowych ludzi, amoniak jest transportowany do wątroby, tam rozkładany na mocznik i glutaminę. Mocznik zaś dzięki krwi przedostaje się do dróg moczowych i gruczołów potowych i przez nie jest wydalany z organizmu.

Hiperamonemia może występować jako zaburzenie pierwotne lub wtórne. Cykl mocznikowy, zwany też ornitynowym lub bardziej popularnie mocznikowym cyklem Krebsa, to szlak metaboliczny (szereg reakcji następujących kolejno po sobie, w których produkt jednej reakcji jest substratem w następnej, czyli ulega dalszej przemianie biochemicznej). Inne nazwy choroby: - wrodzony niedobór transkarbamylazy (transkarbamoilazy) ornitynowej (OTC), - ornithine carbamyltransferase deficiency, - wymioty, Nuances, Narratives, and the “Chemical Imbalance” Debate. Religions, cultures, and political groups all have their narratives—usually favorable or flattering accounts of their origins and beliefs.

But narratives are not the same as truths, and usually lack the nuances of truth, which is rarely black or white. To see how this applies to psychiatry, try answering the question: Which one of the following statements best characterizes the American Psychiatric Association’s 2005 position on the causes of mental illness? 1. All mental illness is caused by specific and identifiable chemical imbalances in the brain. 2. 3. 4. Now, if you were to give credence to a recent online polemic posing as investigative journalism, you would probably choose the first or second statement.1 In the narrative of the antipsychiatry movement, a monolithic entity called “Psychiatry” has deliberately misled the public as to the causes of mental illness, by failing to debunk the chemical imbalance hypothesis.

Are Mental Illnesses Caused by "Chemical Imbalances?" - Pete Earley. FROM MY FILES FRIDAY: Is there such a thing as a “chemical imbalance?” The term has fallen out of favor of late, but you still hear it. In this slightly edited blog that was first published in March 2011, I offered my opinion about this often controversial term. One of the first phrases parents hear when a loved one shows symptoms of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or persistent and major depression is “chemical imbalance.” I remember being shocked when I wrote this term in a Washington Post Op Ed piece and was confronted by someone who told me there is absolutely no scientific evidence that mental illnesses are caused by chemical imbalances in the brain.

So I was happy when I received an advance copy of the book: SHRINK RAP: Three Psychiatrist Explain Their Work written by psychiatrists: Dinah Miller, Annette Hanson, and Steven Roy Daviss, who write a popular mental health blog. I found their comments about “chemical imbalances” helpful. I agree with the Shrink Rap doctors. Immunotherapy fights cancer better with both arms of the immune system, say researchers.

The treated mice developed immunological memory; when the researchers injected them with tumor cells months later, their immune systems destroyed them. Now, a new study from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) suggests that one reason immunotherapy treatments appear to fail when they leave the lab may be because they are only enlisting one arm of the immune system. So far, immunotherapy developers have focused either on attacking tumors with antibodies, which enlists the innate immune response, or approaches like adoptive T cell therapy to boost numbers of T cells, which form the backbone of the adaptive immune response.

In a report on their work in the journal Cancer Cell, senior author Dane Wittrup, a professor in chemical engineering, and colleagues describe how a combination of the two approaches successfully halted a very aggressive type of melanoma in mice. Making IL-2 hang around longer boosts anti-tumor antibody therapy So Prof. But there was a surprise in store. Prof. Revealing kidney cancer's secret. Tumors gain survival advantage by reprogramming their metabolism An international team of scientists, led by UC Davis nephrologist Robert Weiss, have used a sophisticated combination of proteomics and metabolomics to show how renal cell carcinoma (RCC) reprograms its metabolism and evades the immune system. In addition, the study found that cancer grade has a major impact on this reprogramming. These results, published in the journal Cancer Research, point to new therapeutic options for this particularly deadly cancer.

"The mortality for someone with highly metastatic RCC is somewhere in the 90 percent range," said Weiss, professor of nephrology and internal medicine at UC Davis and chief of nephrology at the VA Northern California Health System in Sacramento. "We now know this cancer is actually reprogramming its environment to minimize the immune response. " The team used a unique approach to make these discoveries, combining proteomics with metabolomics.

Scientists discover key driver of human aging. Salk Institute findings on premature aging syndrome could lead to slowing or reversing the aging process. A study tying the aging process to the deterioration of tightly packaged bundles of cellular DNA could lead to methods of preventing and treating age-related diseases such as cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, as detailed in Science. In the study, scientists at the Salk Institute and the Chinese Academy of Science found that the genetic mutations underlying Werner syndrome, a disorder that leads to premature aging and death, resulted in the deterioration of bundles of DNA known as heterochromatin. The discovery, made possible through a combination of cutting-edge stem cell and gene-editing technologies, could lead to ways of countering age-related physiological declines by preventing or reversing damage to heterochromatin. Werner syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes people to age more rapidly than normal.

It affects around one in every 200,000 people in the United States. Researchers provide further insight into male bias of autism. A 2:1 or 3:1 male to female autism spectrum disorder prevalence bias is frequently reported in studies. The series is published in Molecular Autism and explores structural differences in the brain, the role of prenatal sex hormones and a theory referred to as the "female protective effect. " "Autism has always been perceived as a condition that occurs more often in males, which means that females are usually underrepresented in research studies," explains guest editor Meng-Chuan Lai from the University of Cambridge, UK. "This means there's a risk that the scientific and clinical literature provides a partial, male-based understanding of autism. " It is clear, however, that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not simply a male condition. "Delineating the role that sex and gender play in the characteristics of autism, across multiple levels, may inform both our ability to identify the condition and lead to a greater understanding of its developmental psychology and biology," says Dr.

Lai. Yoga and chronic pain have opposite effects on brain gray matter -- ScienceDaily. Chronic pain is known to cause brain anatomy changes and impairments, but yoga can be an important tool for preventing or even reversing the effects of chronic pain on the brain, according to a National Institutes of Health (NIH) official speaking at the American Pain Society's annual meeting. M. Catherine Bushnell, PhD, scientific director, Division of Intramural Research, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, NIH, explained in a plenary session address that many chronic pain patients show associated anxiety and depression as well as deficits in cognitive functions. In addition, brain imaging studies in rats and humans have shown alterations in gray matter volume and white matter integrity in the brain caused by the effects of chronic pain.

"Imaging studies in multiple types of chronic pain patients show their brains differ from healthy control subjects," said Bushnell. Kids with ADHD must squirm to learn, study says -- ScienceDaily. For decades, frustrated parents and teachers have barked at fidgety children with ADHD to "Sit still and concentrate! " But new research conducted at UCF shows that if you want ADHD kids to learn, you have to let them squirm. The foot-tapping, leg-swinging and chair-scooting movements of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are actually vital to how they remember information and work out complex cognitive tasks, according to a study published in an early online release of the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.

The findings show the longtime prevailing methods for helping children with ADHD may be misguided. "The typical interventions target reducing hyperactivity. It's exactly the opposite of what we should be doing for a majority of children with ADHD," said one of the study's authors, Mark Rapport, head of the Children's Learning Clinic at the University of Central Florida. The study at the UCF clinic included 52 boys ages 8 to 12. Antibody's unusual abilities might inspire vaccine strategies. The antibody shows promise both for stopping E. coli from adhering to cells and for dislodging it E. coli bacteria showing the appendages used to adhere to other cells. For example, certain forms of E. coli can attached to human cells in the urinary tract to cause infection. Credit: Sokurenko lab/University of Washington The recent discovery of a novel antibody that works in an unusual way might inspire ideas for designing more effective vaccines. The antibody appears to have properties that might keep bacteria from adhering to human cell surfaces and also dislodge those already attached.

The researchers reported on the antibody in PLOS Pathogens. In the study, the researchers were looking for antibodies that go after a protein the bacteria E. coli uses to attach to human cells. The researchers were particularly interested in strains of E. coli that cause urinary tract infections. One antibody, however, appeared to work better than the others. Cancer cells 'disguise themselves as immune cells' to spread via lymphatic system, study finds. The study shows how cancer cells take on the guise of immune cells to gain entry to the lymphatic system.

Writing in the journal Oncogene, cancer researchers and immunologists led by the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, describe how they found cancer cells "disguise themselves" as white blood cells to gain entry to the lymphatic system. The team suggests the discovery should help develop new drugs to prevent or reduce cancer spread through the lymphatic system.

Metastasis - where cancer spreads to other parts of the body - is the major cause of death from cancer. Cells break off from the primary tumor and travel through the body to set up secondary tumors in vital organs such as the lungs or the liver. The lymphatic system is a network of nodes and vessels that runs throughout the body. It is an important part of the immune system that helps fight bacteria and other infections and to dispose of old and abnormal cells. In their paper, Prof. Prof. Written by Catharine Paddock PhD. Superbug warning to drug giants -- ScienceDaily. AP (June 26, 2014) — Despite the ick factor, some doctors have called fecal transplants a near miraculous treatment for recurrent infections from an antibiotic-resistant, often deadly, superbug. (June 26) Video provided ... watch video TheStreet (May 9, 2014) — The National Institute for Drug Abuse, or NIDA, has asked the Drug Enforcement Agency for more marijuana. NIDA has requested an increase from 21,000 grams to 650,000 grams, or roughly 1,433 pounds of ... watch video TheStreet (June 4, 2014) — One thing cancer does is teach you about life, says Mark Herzlich, New York Giant and author of "What It Takes".

An All-American at Boston College, Herzlich overcame Ewing's sarcoma, a rare bonce ... watch video AP (June 26, 2014) — Despite the ick factor, some doctors have called fecal transplants a near miraculous treatment for recurrent infections from an antibiotic-resistant, often deadly, superbug. Drug perks up old muscles and aging brains -- ScienceDaily. Whether you're brainy, brawny or both, you may someday benefit from a drug found to rejuvenate aging brain and muscle tissue.

Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have discovered that a small-molecule drug simultaneously perks up old stem cells in the brains and muscles of mice, a finding that could lead to drug interventions for humans that would make aging tissues throughout the body act young again. "We established that you can use a single small molecule to rescue essential function in not only aged brain tissue but aged muscle," said co-author David Schaffer, director of the Berkeley Stem Cell Center and a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering.

"That is good news, because if every tissue had a different molecular mechanism for aging, we wouldn't be able to have a single intervention that rescues the function of multiple tissues. " The UC Berkeley team reported its results in the current issue of the journal Oncotarget. Depressed stem cells lead to aging. BioMed Central | Journals A-Z. Medical News Today: The Latest Health News. NSF - National Science Foundation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Stanford News. EurekAlert! Science News. ScienceDaily: Your source for the latest research news. Child Development Advice And Parenting Help For Parents. Oxford Journals | Medicine & Health | J. of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Soc.

Oxford Journals. Home : Nature Reviews Immunology. Nature Publishing Group : science journals, jobs, and information. The Scientist Magazine® ScienceDirect.com | Science, health and medical journals, full text articles and books. Portal medyczno-farmaceutyczny - m.PFM.pl. Blog de Bart. Current Health News - MedicineNet - Health and Medical Information Produced by Doctors. Health News - Medical News Today. Health & Medicine News -- ScienceDaily. Home | Stanford Medicine. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Full text | Effect of maternal job strain during pregnancy on infant neurodevelopment by gender at 6 and 12 months: Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study.

AACI | Full text | Central obesity and other factors associated with uncontrolled asthma in women. The concept of asthma and its heterogeneity has recently changed due to the characterisation of different phenotypes that are associated with different expression profiles, disease severity and disease control [5],[19]. Many phenotypes associated with asthma have been described that are defined by multivariate features, including clinical, genetic and molecular features; the phenotypes are able to interact, have different behaviours regarding control and response to treatment and are linked to gender [5],[10],[19].

During childhood, asthma is more prevalent in males, after puberty, however, its incidence increases in women [20]. In addition to being more affected by asthma, women are at greater risk of developing non-atopic asthma, which has been associated with greater severity and poor control [21],[22]. However, the determinants for this greater risk among women are not yet known. Online First. BioMed Central | Journals A-Z. Medycyna Praktyczna. Medycyna Praktyczna. Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) National Institutes of Health (NIH) Stem Cell Basics: Introduction. Home - Children's Heart Institute. Trusted Answers from The Hospital for Sick Children. LIVESTRONG.COM - Lose Weight & Get Fit with Diet, Nutrition & Fitness Tools | LIVESTRONG.COM.

ADHD: Behavioral Parenting Supported (Again) By Research. Psychology Today: Health, Help, Happiness + Find a Therapist. Dalton Conley Answers Your “Parentology” Questions. Publishing Corporation. Journal. Archives of Disease in Childhood - BMJ Journals. Home - ClinicalTrials.gov. Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Directory: Find News, Features, and Pictures Related to Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

Medicine/Health | EurekAlert! Science News. Medicine and health sciences. ScienceDaily: News, Videos & Articles in Science, Health, Technology & Environment. Public News List. Beneficial and cautionary outcomes of resveratrol su... [FASEB J. 2014] Beneficial and cautionary outcomes of resveratrol supplementation in pregnant nonhuman primates. Nutrition Journal | All articles. Comparative effectiveness of long term drug treatment strategies to prevent asthma exacerbations: network meta-analysis. Higher potency statins and the risk of new diabetes: multicentre, observational study of administrative databases. Could resveratrol supplements harm the fetus during pregnancy? Permission request form' Kopalnia Wiedzy - Najnowsze osiągnięcia, najważniejsze odkrycia, wynalazki, które zmieniają świat. Could resveratrol supplements harm the fetus during pregnancy?

Home | BMJ. Medscape: Medical News, Full-text Journal Articles & More. The New England Journal of Medicine: Research & Review Articles on Disease & Clinical Practice. Informator medyczny - jedyny, największy, najlepszy. JAMAevidence | Home. JAMA Network | Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine | Home. Online First.