OPHA - Office of Public Health Awareness. Speed of symptoms can differ, but generally 48 hours after infection a person will experience severe headache, sore throat, weakness, fever, joint pain. After 96 hours the symptoms include nausea, vomiting, red eyes, raised rash, chest pain and cough. After 7 days symptoms escalate quickly to stomach pain, severe weight loss and bleeding from nose, mouth and eyes. Wear A Mask Minimize Contact Avoid Public Spaces Do Not Congregate. Simian Flu: Public Service Announcement. Simian FEAT. Strong start to 2012 for Simian Risk. Leading scaffolding health and safety consultancy Simian Risk Group has announced a strong start to 2012 with continued growth forecast for the coming year.
The Warrington based firm which offers both consultancy and training arms works within the construction industry across the UK and Middle East, with clients including Construction Skills, Carillion, BAE and NSG UK. Launched in 2005 by directors Ian Fyall and Simon Hughes, Simian Risk Group has increased turnover year-on-year, hitting £1.5million in the financial year end to October 2011. Simian Risk Group operates Simian Risk – the core consultancy arm of the business – and Simian Skill, which offers training to some of the UK’s biggest scaffolding firms as well as an apprenticeship programme which has so far trained more than 200 young people to go into the construction industry. Director Ian Fyall said that despite the recession, the firm has grown steadily over the past 18 months. Via: specificationonline.co.uk. Simian. The simians (infraorder Simiiformes, Anthropoidea) are the higher primates: the Old World monkeys and apes, including humans (together being the catarrhines), and the New World monkeys or platyrrhines.
The simian line and the tarsier line diverged about 60 million years ago. Forty million years ago, simians from Africa colonized South America, giving rise to the New World monkeys. The remaining simians (catarrhines) split 25 million years ago into apes and Old World monkeys. Classification and evolution In earlier classification, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, apes, and humans—collectively known as simians or anthropoids—were grouped under Anthropoidea (/ˌænθɹəˈpɔɪdiə/, Gr. άνθρωπος, anthropos, human, also called anthropoid apes), while the strepsirrhines and tarsiers were grouped under the suborder "Prosimii".
Primatology, paleoanthropology, and other related fields are split on their usage of the synonymous infraorder names, Simiiformes and Anthropoidea. See also Lentiviral Vector-Based Prime/Boost Vaccination against AIDS: Pilot Study Shows Protection against Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251 Challenge in Macaques. + Author Affiliations AIDS vaccination has a pressing need for more potent vaccination vectors capable of eliciting strong, diversified, and long-lasting cellular immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lentiviral vectors have demonstrated efficiency not only as gene delivery vehicles for gene therapy applications but also as vaccination tools. This is likely due to their ability to transduce nondividing cells, including dendritic cells, enabling sustained endogenous antigen presentation and thus the induction of high proportions of specific cytotoxic T cells and long-lasting memory T cells.
We show in a first proof-of-concept pilot study that a prime/boost vaccination strategy using lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with a glycoprotein G from two non-cross-reactive vesicular stomatitis virus serotypes elicited robust and broad cellular immune responses against the vector-encoded antigen, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) GAG, in cynomolgus macaques. White handed Gibbon Hylobates lar Orange. Maxresdefault. What is Vector Control? Highly Attenuated Rabies Virus—Based Vaccine Vectors Expressing Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus89.6P Env and Simian Immunodeficiency Virusmac239 Gag Are Safe in Rhesus Macaques and Protect from an AIDS-Like Disease.
+ Author Affiliations Reprints or correspondence: Dr. Matthias J. Schnell, 233 S. 10th St., Ste. 531 BLSB, Philadelphia, PA 19107-5541 (email@example.com). Abstract We analyzed the safety and immunogenicity of attenuated rabies virus vectors expressing simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)—189.6P Env or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 Gag in rhesus macaques.
Four test macaques were immunized with both vaccine constructs, and 2 control macaques received an empty rabies vector. Seroconversion against rabies virus glycoprotein (G) and SHIV89.6P Env was detected after the initial immunization, but no cellular responses against SHIV antigens were observed. The search for an effective HIV-1 vaccine has been frustratingly long, with a limited number of promising approaches in the pipeline.
For HIV-1 and SIV, there is evidence that virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in controlling viral replication and disease progression . Highly Attenuated Rabies Virus—Based Vaccine Vectors Expressing Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus89.6P Env and Simian Immunodeficiency Virusmac239 Gag Are Safe in Rhesus Macaques and Protect from an AIDS-Like Disease. Malaria - Malaria Worldwide - How Can Malaria Cases and Deaths Be Reduced? - Larval Control and Other Vector Control Interventions. Larval Control Interventions targeting the larval stages of the mosquito are used in developing countries.
While these interventions can be popular, the evidence for their effectiveness is generally weak and there is a critical need for more rigorous evaluation of the ecological settings in which they might have an impact on reducing malaria transmission. Theoretically, larval control would seem to be an ideal approach to mosquito control as it eliminates mosquitoes before they reach the stage where they can transmit malaria. However, larval habitats may be small, widely dispersed, and transient. Anopheles gambiae, one of the primary vectors of malaria in Africa, breeds in numerous small pools of water that form due to rainfall. Source reduction: The burrow pit resulting from the activity of this brickmaker in Kisian (western Kenya) is a potential breeding site for Anopheles larvae. Source Reduction Source reduction is removal or permanent destruction of mosquito breeding sites. Simian Malaria Parasites: Special Emphasis on Plasmodium knowlesi and Their Anopheles Vectors in Southeast Asia.
1. Introduction Simian malaria parasites were first reported in Malayan monkeys by Daniels in 1908 . It had been assumed for a long time that transmission of simian malaria to humans would not be possible. However, an accidental infection of scientists in Atlanta, USA by mosquito bites in the laboratory proved that a simian malaria species– Plasmodium cynomolgi can be transmitted to humans [2, 3].
In 1965 the first natural infection in human was reported in an American surveyor who was infected in the jungles of Pahang, Malaysia . Plasmodium knowlesi was first found in Macaca fascicularis monkeys that were brought to India from Singapore. Mosquito surveys carried out in the area where the first case occurred did not reveal any sporozoite infections in the mosquitoes. 2. In Southeast Asia, there are 13 species of Plasmodium affecting non-human primates .
Information is currently available on the non-human primate malaria especially in Malaysia. 3. 4. Figure 1. 5. 6. 6.1. 6.2. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Chimpanzees. + Author Affiliations Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are primate lentiviruses that infect no fewer than 36 different nonhuman primate species in sub-Saharan Africa (4, 9, 62). Two of these viruses, SIVcpz from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and SIVsmm from sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), have crossed species barriers on multiple occasions and have generated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 (20, 24, 25, 94). AIDS, one of the most devastating infectious diseases to have emerged in recent history, is thus the result of cross-species infections of humans by lentiviruses of primate origin (33). Identification of the primate source that spawned the HIV-1 pandemic is of scientific and public health importance. Primates naturally infected with SIV, including SIVcpz-infected chimpanzees, appear not to develop immunodeficiency or AIDS (31, 40, 49, 60, 70, 79).
Chimpanzees and humans share more than 98% sequence identity across their genomes (91). THE ORIGIN OF SIVcpz. Emergent Human Pathogen Simian Virus 40 and Its Role in Cancer. The polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40) is a known oncogenic DNA virus which induces primary brain and bone cancers, malignant mesothelioma, and lymphomas in laboratory animals. Persuasive evidence now indicates that SV40 is causing infections in humans today and represents an emerging pathogen. A meta-analysis of molecular, pathological, and clinical data from 1,793 cancer patients indicates that there is a significant excess risk of SV40 associated with human primary brain cancers, primary bone cancers, malignant mesothelioma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Experimental data strongly suggest that SV40 may be functionally important in the development of some of those human malignancies. Therefore, the major types of tumors induced by SV40 in laboratory animals are the same as those human malignancies found to contain SV40 markers.
↵*Corresponding author. American Society for Microbiology.