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Rāja yoga. Rāja yoga (Sanskrit: राज योग, /ˈrɑːdʒə ˈjoʊɡə/) is a term with a variety of meanings depending on the context. In modern context, it refers to the Yoga school of philosophy in Hinduism. In historical context, it was the ultimate stage of yoga practice, one nearing Samadhi. The modern retronym was introduced in the 19th-century by Swami Vivekananda to differentiate it as the form of yoga that includes the yoga of mind. Ancient, medieval and most modern literature often refers to Yoga school of Hinduism simply as Yoga.[2][3] Yoga philosophy is one of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism.[2][4] It is closely related to the Samkhya school of Hinduism.

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is a key text of the Yoga school of Hinduism.[10] Etymology and usage[edit] Rāja (Sanskrit: राज) means "chief, best of its kind" or "king".[19] Rāja yoga thus refers to "chief, best of yoga". In the context of Hindu philosophy, rāja yoga is a retronym, introduced in the 19th-century by Swami Vivekananda. [edit] Nadi (yoga) Chakra Kundalini Diagram Nāḍi (tube, pipe") are the channels through which, in traditional Indian medicine and spiritual science, the energies of the subtle body are said to flow.

They connect at special points of intensity called chakras. The word "nadi" is pronounced as "naRdi", with R+d loosely pronounced together (the effort is made by the tip of the tongue; it curls up, pointing backwards, then springs forward to lie flat). In normal biological reference, a nadi can be translated into "nerve" in English. However, in yogic, and specifically in Kundalini yoga reference, a nadi can be thought of as a channel (not an anatomical structure). In regard to Kundalini yoga, there are three of these nadis: Ida, pingala, and sushumna. An early version of the nadi system is mentioned in the Katha Upanishad, which says: "A hundred and one are the arteries of the heart, one of them leads up to the crown of the head. One website states: Pingala is associated with solar energy. Kundalini. Kundalini (Sanskrit kuṇḍalinī, कुण्डलिनी, Kundalini awakening is said to result in deep meditation, enlightenment and bliss.[6] This awakening involves the Kundalini physically moving up the central channel to reach within the Sahasrara Chakra at the top of the head.

Many systems of yoga focus on the awakening of Kundalini through meditation, pranayama breathing, the practice of asana and chanting of mantras.[6] In physical terms, one commonly reports the Kundalini experience to be a feeling of electric current running along the spine.[7][8][9] Etymology[edit] The concept of Kundalini is mentioned in Upanishads (9th century BCE - 3rd century BCE).[10][verification needed] The Sanskrit adjective kuṇḍalin means "circular, annular".

It does occur as a noun for "a snake" (in the sense "coiled", as in "forming ringlets") in the 12th-century Rajatarangini chronicle (I.2). Descriptions[edit] Numerous accounts describe the experience of Kundalini awakening. Kundalini experiences[edit] New Age[edit] Seven stages (Yogi) According to Vedic and Hindu philosophy, every Yogi goes through Seven stages of development before achieving complete liberation.

They are listed in the commentary on the Yoga Sutras by Vyasa.[1][2] The seven stages are grouped into two phases: The first four stages form the first phase where the Yogi is liberated from the 'products of mental processes',(i.e.) results of his thoughts.The last three stages form the second phase in which the Yogi is liberated from the mind itself. Stage 1: "That which is to be known is known by me". At this stage the yogi realises that all true knowledge comes from within oneself, and the mind becomes satisfied that meditation will lead to all truth. Stage 2: At this stage the yogi recognises the causes of his sufferings, uses this knowledge to free himself from those causes and hence becomes free from pain.

Stage 3: The yogi attains full discriminative knowledge of the state of samādhi, in which the Yogi is completely absorbed into The Self. Stage 4: Stage 5: Hot yoga. Hot yoga refers to yoga exercises performed under hot and humid conditions. Often associated with the style devised by Bikram Choudhury, hot yoga is now used to describe any number of yoga styles that use heat to increase an individual's flexibility in the poses.[1][2][3] In colder climates, hot yoga often seeks to replicate the heat and humidity of India where yoga originated.[4] Some forms of hot yoga include: Bikram Yoga was brought to the U.S. in the early 70s and became the most widely known form of hot yoga.Evolation Yoga was founded in 2009 by Mark Drost and Zefea Samson.

Zefea has been on the yoga path since the age of 5 and competed in the top 10 at the International Yoga Asana championships for 4 years. They created evolation to provide a comprehensive inclusive and intimate training experience for students who wanted to study the hot yoga Primary Series, without the associated attachments. Jump up ^ "Different Types of Yoga Today". Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are 196 Indian sūtras (aphorisms) that constitute the foundational text of Ashtanga Yoga, also called Raja Yoga. In medieval times, Ashtanga Yoga was cast as one of the six orthodox āstika schools of Hindu philosophy. The Yoga Sutras were compiled around 400 CE by Patañjali, taking materials about yoga from older traditions. Together with his commentary they form the Pātañjalayogaśāstra.

Author and dating[edit] Author[edit] The Indian tradition attributes the work to Patañjali. Dating[edit] The most recent assessment of Patañjali's date, developed in the context of the first critical edition ever made of the Yoga Sūtras and bhāṣya based on a study of the surviving original Sanskrit manuscripts of the work, is that of Philipp A. Compilation[edit] The Yoga Sutras are a composite of various texts. Contents[edit] Structure of the text[edit] The eight limbs of Yoga[edit] Yama refers to the five abstentions: how we relate to the external world. Ananda and asmita[edit] Tummo. Tummo (Tibetan: gtum-mo; Sanskrit: caṇḍālī) is a form of breathing, found in the Six Yogas of Naropa,[1] Lamdre, Kalachakra and Anuyoga teachings of Tibetan Vajrayana.

Tummo originally derives from Indian Vajrayana tradition, including the instruction of the Mahasiddha Krishnacarya and the Hevajra Tantra. The purpose of tummo is to gain control over body processes during the completion stage of 'highest yoga tantra' (Anuttarayoga Tantra) or Anuyoga. Nomenclature, orthography and etymology[edit] Tummo (gTum mo in Wylie transliteration, also spelled Tumo, or Tum-mo; Sanskrit caṇḍālī) is a Tibetan word, literally meaning fierce [woman]. Tummo is a Tibetan word for inner fire.[2] Orthography[edit] Tummo may also be rendered in English approximating its phonemic enunciation as 'Dumo'.[3] Practice[edit] The channels do not exist in the way they are visualized during Vajrayana practice.

After familiarity in trul khor, there is the practice of tummo. Kundalini and tummo[edit] Miranda Shaw clarifies: Vishuddha. Vishuddha (Sanskrit: विशुद्ध, IAST: Viśuddha, English: "especially pure"), or Vishuddhi, or throat chakra is the fifth primary chakra according to the Hindu tradition.[1] Description[edit] Location[edit] Vishuddha is positioned at the neck region, near the spine, with its Kshetram or superficial activation point in the pit of the throat. Hence, it is also known as the throat chakra.[2] Appearance[edit] Seed Mantra[edit] Petals[edit] Vishuddha has 16 purple petals upon which are written the 16 Sanskrit vowels in golden; NB: Some vowels listed above do not strictly correspond to the grammatical definition of a Sanskrit vowel, specifically ॡ ḹ, अः ḥ, and अं ṃ. The petals correspond to the vrittis of the mantra Ong [Aum], the Sama-mantras, the mantras Hung, Phat, Washat, Swadha, Swaha, and Namak, the nectar Amrita, and the seven musical tones.

Function[edit] It is associated with the element Akasha, or Æther, and the sense of hearing, as well as the action of speaking. Lalana chakra[edit] Hatha Yoga Pradipika. The Haṭha Yoga Pradīpikā (Sanskrit: haṭhayōgapradīpikā, हठयोगप्रदीपिका) is a classic Sanskrit manual on hatha yoga, written by Svāmi Svātmārāma, a disciple of Swami Gorakhnath. It is amongst the most influential surviving texts on the hatha yoga, and is one of the three classic texts of hatha yoga, the other two being the Gheranda Samhita and the Shiva Samhita. A fourth major text, written at a later date by Srinivasabhatta Mahayogaindra, is the Hatharatnavali.[1] Different manuscripts of this work offer various versions of its title. The database of the A. C. Woolner manuscript project at the Library of the University of Vienna gives the following variant titles, gleaned from different manuscript colophons: Haṭhayogapradīpikā, Haṭhapradīpikā, Haṭhapradī, Hath-Pradipika.[2] The text was written in 15th century CE.

The Haṭhayogapradīpikā It has been translated into English more than once (see bibliography below). Recent research[edit] Notes[edit] External links[edit] Iyengar Yoga. A student performing Uttitha Trikonasana, triangle pose, one of the basic standing poses in Iyengar Yoga Iyengar Yoga, named after and developed by B. K. S. Iyengar, is a form of Hatha Yoga that has an emphasis on detail, precision and alignment in the performance of posture (asana) and breath control (pranayama). The development of strength, mobility and stability is gained through the asanas. B.K.S. Iyengar Yoga often, but not always, makes use of props, such as belts, blocks, and blankets, as aids in performing asanas (postures). Iyengar Yoga is firmly based on the traditional eight limbs of yoga as expounded by Patanjali in his Yoga Sutras. Focus[edit] A form of Hatha Yoga, it focuses on the structural alignment of the physical body through the development of asanas.

It can be said that Iyengar differs from the other styles of yoga by three key elements: technique, sequence and timing. Iyengar Yoga is characterized by great attention to detail and precise focus on body alignment. B. Yogacara. Yogācāra (literally "yoga practice"; "one whose practice is yoga")[1] is an influential school of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing phenomenology and ontology[2] through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices. It was associated with Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism in about the 4th century CE,[3] but also included non-Mahayana practitioners of the Dārṣṭāntika school.[4] Yogācāra discourse explains how our human experience is constructed by mind.

Nomenclature, orthography and etymology[edit] History[edit] The Yogācāra, along with the Madhyamaka, is one of the two principal philosophical schools of Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism.[5] Origination[edit] Masaaki (2005) states: "[a]ccording to the Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra, the first Yogācāra text, the Buddha set the 'wheel of the doctrine' (Dharmacakra) in motion three times The orientation of the Yogācāra school is largely consistent with the thinking of the Pāli nikāyas. Asaṅga and Vasubandhu[edit] Maitreya Bodhisattva and disciples. B. K. S. Iyengar. B. K. S. Iyengar, or Bellur Krishnamachar Sundararaja Iyengar (born 14 December 1918), is the founder of Iyengar Yoga and is considered one of the foremost yoga teachers in the world.[1][2] He has written many books on yoga practice and philosophy including Light on Yoga, Light on Pranayama, and Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

Iyengar yoga classes are offered throughout the world. He was awarded the Padma Shri in 1991, the Padma Bhushan in 2002 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2014.[5][6] In 2004, Iyengar was named one of the 100 most influential people in the world by Time Magazine.[7][8] Early years[edit] Education in yoga[edit] In 1934, his brother-in-law, the yogi Sri Tirumalai Krishnamacharya, asked Iyengar, who would have been 15 years old at the time, to come to Mysore, so as to improve his health through yoga practice.[10] There, Iyengar learned asana practice, which steadily improved his health. Teaching career[edit] International recognition[edit] Personal practice[edit] Trul khor. Tsa lung[1] Trul khor (lit. "magical movement instrument, channels and inner breath currents") known for brevity as Trul khor (lit. "magical instrument" or "magic circle;" Sanskrit: adhisāra[2]) is a Vajrayana discipline which includes pranayama and body postures (asanas).

From the perspective of Dzogchen, the mind is merely vāyu in the body. Thus working with vāyu and the body is paramount, while meditation on the other hand is considered contrived and conceptual. Chögyal Namkhai Norbu, a prominent exponent of Trul khor, prefers to use the Sanskrit equivalent term, Yantra Yoga, when writing in English. Trul khor derives from the instructions of the Indian Mahasiddhas who founded Vajrayana. Lung[edit] rlung (Wylie) is equivalent to the Sanskrit vāyu. English discourse[edit] Tenzin Wangyal's text Awakening the Sacred Body presents some of the basic practices of trul khor according to the Tibetan Bon tradition. Primary texts[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit] Further reading[edit] Yin yoga. Yin Yoga is a slow-paced style of yoga with postures or asanas that are held for longer periods of time—five minutes or longer per pose is typical.[1] It originates in China and was first taught in the United States in the late 1970s by martial arts expert and Taoist yoga teacher Paulie Zink.[2][3][4] Yin-style yoga is now being taught across North America and in Europe, due in large part to the widespread teaching activities of Yin Yoga teachers and developers Paul Grilley and Sarah Powers.[5][6] Yin Yoga poses apply moderate stress to the connective tissues—the tendons, fascia, and ligaments—with the aim of increasing circulation in the joints and improving flexibility.

Yin Yoga poses are also designed to improve the flow of qi, the subtle energy said in Chinese medicine to run through the meridian pathways of the body. History[edit] Roots in China[edit] A North American master[edit] Paul Grilley and Sarah Powers[edit] Teaching spreads[edit] Objectives[edit] Practice[edit] Principles[edit] Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (12 January 1918[1] – 5 February 2008) was born Mahesh Prasad Varma and obtained the honorific Maharishi (meaning "Great Seer")[2][3] and Yogi as an adult.[4][5] He developed the Transcendental Meditation technique and was the leader and guru of a worldwide organization that has been characterized in multiple ways including as a new religious movement and as non-religious.[6][7][8] Maharishi Mahesh Yogi became a disciple and assistant of Swami Brahmananda Saraswati, the Shankaracharya (spiritual leader) of Jyotirmath in the Indian Himalayas.

The Maharishi credits Brahmananda Saraswati with inspiring his teachings. In 1955, the Maharishi began to introduce his Transcendental Deep Meditation (later renamed Transcendental Meditation) to India and the world. His first global tour began in 1958.[9] His devotees referred to him as His Holiness,[10] and because he often laughed in TV interviews he was sometimes referred to as the "giggling guru".[11][12][13] Life[edit] Nirmala Srivastava. Sirsasana. Acroyoga. Yoga. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Asana. Kundalini yoga. Hatha yoga.