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Timeline of respiratory therapy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Ancient period[edit] 1550 BC: (EG) The Ebers Papyrus describes ancient Egyptian inhalation treatments for asthma. Eighteenth Century (1700s)[edit] 1771: (US) Carl Scheele (1742–1786) makes "fire air" (oxygen) by heating magnesium oxide. Nineteenth Century (1800s)[edit] 1816: (US) Rene T.H. Twentieth Century (1900s)[edit] 1900-1920[edit] 1908: (US) George Poe demonstrated his mechanical respirator by asphyxiating dogs and seemingly bringing them back to life.1918: Oxygen masks are used to treat combat-induced pulmonary edema.[3] 1920-1940[edit] 1928: Phillip Drinker develops the "iron lung" negative pressure ventilator.[3]1935: Carl Matthes invented the first noninvasive oximeter employing an ear probe.[1] 1940-1960[edit] 1960-1980[edit] 1980-2000[edit] Twenty-First Century (2000s)[edit] References[edit] ^ Jump up to: a b c Severinghaus JW, Astrup PB (1986). Kapalabhati (Hatha Yoga)

Kapalabhati (pronounced KAH-pah-lah-BAH-tee)[1] (aka Kapalbhati, or Bhalabhai in the Gherand Samhita), is an important part of Shatkarma (sometimes known as Shatkriya), the yogic system of body cleansing techniques. The word kapalbhati is made up of two words: kapal meaning 'skull' (here skull includes all the organs under the skull too) and bhati meaning 'shining, illuminating.' Due to the process, the organs under the skull mainly the brain and the small brain are influenced in a good manner. Hence the word is used in that way. It is intended mainly to the cleaning of the cranial sinuses but has many other effects, according to the Gherand Samhita and other sources.[2] The Technique of Kapalabhati involves short and strong forceful exhalations and inhalation happens automatically.[3] There are three forms of Kapalabhati: Peak expiratory flow. The peak expiratory flow (PEF), also called peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is a person's maximum speed of expiration, as measured with a peak flow meter, a small, hand-held device used to monitor a person's ability to breathe out air.

It measures the airflow through the bronchi and thus the degree of obstruction in the airways. Function[edit] Peak flow readings are higher when patients are well, and lower when the airways are constricted. From changes in recorded values, patients and doctors may determine lung functionality, severity of asthma symptoms, and treatment options. First measure of precaution would be to check patient for signs and symptoms of asthmatic hypervolemia.

This would indicate whether or not to even continue with the Peak Flow Meter procedure. Due to the wide range of ‘normal' values and high degree of variability, peak flow is not the recommended test to identify asthma. A small portion of people with asthma may benefit from regular peak flow monitoring. Liquid breathing. Perfluorochemical (perfluorocarbon) molecules have very different structures that impart different physical properties such as respiratory gas solubility, density, viscosity, vapor pressure, and lipid solubility.[1] Thus, it is critical to select the appropriate PFC for a specific biomedical application, such as liquid ventilation, drug delivery or blood substitutes. The physical properties of PFC liquids vary substantially; however, the one common property is their high solubility for respiratory gases. In fact, these liquids carry more oxygen and carbon dioxide than blood.[2] In theory, liquid breathing could assist in the treatment of patients with severe pulmonary or cardiac trauma, especially in pediatric cases.

Liquid breathing has also been proposed for use in deep diving[3][4] and space travel.[5] Despite some recent advances in liquid ventilation, a standard mode of application has not been established yet. Approaches[edit] Total liquid ventilation[edit] PFC vapor[edit] Pratiloma ujjayi. Ujjayi meaning 'victorious' is an integral type of Pranayama, breathing exercise, used in yoga. It is often called the psychic breath because of its effects on the mind state. Pranayama techniques should be studied with a qualified teacher to ensure correct practice. Simple Ujjayi is achieved by consciously restricting the flow of air through the larynx producing a 'just audiable' snoring sound, like whispering with the mouth closed or breathing through a straw.

Although a valuable practice in its own right there are several variations, one of which is Pratiloma Ujjayi. Pratiloma Ujjayi utilises alternate nostril breathing and Ujjayi in a way that balances and centres the body/mind and extends the length of the breath. The body should be steady, shoulders back, relaxed and away from the ears, the back and neck long, this opens the chest to allow unrestricted breathing.

Left hand in Jnana mudra and right hand in Vishnu or Mrgi mudra. Practice[edit] The use of Ujjayi is denoted by*. Pranayama. Lung volumes. Lung volumes and lung capacities refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle. Lung volumes are directly measured; Lung capacities are inferred from lung volumes. The average total lung capacity of an DIGGDS adult human male is about 6 litres of air,[1] but only a small amount of this capacity is used during normal breathing. The lung capacity of freediver and world record holder Herbert Nitsch is measured to be 10 Liters, which he can expand to 15 Liters with a special technique called “packing” or “buccal pumping”.

Tidal breathing is normal, resting breathing; the tidal volume is the volume of air that is inhaled or exhaled in only a single such breath. The average human respiratory rate is 30-60 breaths per minute at birth,[2] decreasing to 12-20 breaths per minute in adults.[3] Factors affecting volumes[edit] Several factors affect lung volumes; some can be controlled and some cannot. Specific changes in lung volumes also occur during pregnancy. Inert gas. An inert gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions. The noble gases and nitrogen often do not react with many substances.[1] Inert gases are used generally to avoid unwanted chemical reactions degrading a sample.

These undesirable chemical reactions are often oxidation and hydrolysis reactions with the oxygen and moisture in air. The term inert gas is context-dependent because nitrogen gas and several of the noble gases can be made to react under certain conditions. Purified nitrogen and argon gases are most commonly used as inert gases due to their high natural abundance (78% N2, 1% Ar in air) and low relative cost. Unlike noble gases, an inert gas is not necessarily elemental and is often a compound gas. Production[edit] The inert gases are obtained by fractional distillation of air. Applications[edit] Because of the non-reactive properties of inert gases they are often useful to prevent undesirable chemical reactions from taking place. Expiratory apnea. Ventilation (physiology) Ventilation volumes and rates are categorized under the following definitions: Pulmonary ventilation may be evaluated using a breathing tube or spirometer, measuring the movement of the chest and abdominal walls using respiratory inductance plethysmography or by isolating the subject in an enclosed metabolic chamber (body plethysmography).

Pulmonology. Pulmonology is a medical specialty that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.[1] The term is derived from the Latin word pulmō, pulmonis ("lung") and the Greek -λογία, -logia. Pulmonology is synonymous with pneumology (from the Greek πνεύμων ("lung") and -λογία, -logia), respirology and respiratory medicine.

Pulmonology is known as chest medicine and respiratory medicine in some countries and areas. Pulmonology is considered a branch of internal medicine, and is related to intensive care medicine. Pulmonology often involves managing patients who need life support and mechanical ventilation. Pulmonologists are specially trained in diseases and conditions of the chest, particularly pneumonia, asthma, tuberculosis, emphysema, and complicated chest infections. Variations in nomenclature[edit] Diagnosis[edit] The pulmonologist begins the diagnostic process with a general review focusing on: Physical diagnostics are as important as in the other fields of medicine. Procedures[edit] List of terms of lung size and activity. Following are terms that specify a type of lung size and/or activity. More specific definitions may be found in individual articles.

Eupnea - normal breathingApnea - absence of breathingBradypnea - decreased breathing rateDyspnea or shortness of breath - sensation of respiratory distressHyperaeration/Hyperinflation - increased lung volumeHyperpnea - fast and deep breathingHyperventilation - increased breathing that causes CO2 lossHypopnea - slow and shallow breathingHypoventilation - decreased breathing that causes CO2 gainLabored breathing - physical presentation of respiratory distressTachypnea - increased breathing rateOrthopnea - Breathlessness in lying down position relieved by sitting up or standingPlatypnea - Breathlessness when seated or standing, relieved by lying flatTrepopnea - Breathlessness when lying flat relieved by lying in the left lateral positionPonopnea - Painful breathingControl of respiration.

Buteyko method. Konstantin Pavlovich Buteyko The Buteyko method or Buteyko Breathing Technique is a form of complementary or alternative physical therapy that proposes the use of breathing exercises as a treatment for asthma as well as other conditions. The method takes its name from Ukrainian doctor Konstantin Pavlovich Buteyko, who first formulated its principles during the 1950s. This method is based on the assumption that numerous medical conditions, including asthma, are caused by chronically increased respiratory rate or deeper breathing (hyperventilation).

However, this theory is not widely supported in the medical community due to the lack of evidence supporting either the theory behind the method or that it works in practice. Research into the use of the Buteyko method has focused almost exclusively on the treatment of asthma, and have had methodological problems. History[edit] Theory[edit] Description[edit] Nasal breathing[edit] Reduced breathing exercises[edit] Relaxation[edit] Effectiveness[edit]

Respiratory system of the horse. In biology, the respiratory system of the horse is the means by which a horse circulates air around its internal organs. Anatomy[edit] The respiratory system begins with the nares, commonly known as the nostrils, which can expand greatly during intense exercise. The nostrils have an outer ring made of cartilage (the alar cartilage), which serves to hold them open during inhalation. Additionally, a small pocket within them, called the nasal diverticulum, filters debris with the help of the hairs lining the inner nostril. The nasal passages contain two conchae on either side, which help to increase the surface area to which the air is exposed. 1 Concha nasalis dorsalis, 2 Concha nasalis media, 3 Concha nasalis ventralis, 4 Os ethmoidale, 5 Os pterygoideum, 6 Sinus frontalis, 7 Sinus sphenoidalis Frontal sinuses: Occupy the dorsal (top) part of the skull, between the eyes.

At the bifurcation of the trachea, there are two bronchi, the right of which is slightly larger in size. Steam. Steam is the technical term for the gaseous phase of water, which is formed when water boils. Technically speaking, in terms of the chemistry and physics, steam is invisible and cannot be seen; however, in common language it is often used to refer to the visible mist of water droplets formed as this water vapor condenses in the presence of (cooler) air.

At lower pressures, such as in the upper atmosphere or at the top of high mountains water boils at a lower temperature than the nominal 100 °C (212 °F) at standard temperature and pressure. If heated further it becomes superheated steam. Types of steam and conversion[edit] Steam is traditionally created by heating a boiler via burning coal and other fuels, but it is also possible to create steam with solar energy.[1][2][3] Water vapor that includes water droplets is described as wet steam. Uses[edit] Agricultural[edit] In agriculture, steam is used for soil sterilization to avoid the use of harmful chemical agents and increase soil health. Rebirthing-breathwork. Rebirthing-breathwork is a breathing technique that claims to heal suppressed emotions such as anger, fear, sadness, etc. It shares a common belief with various other therapies called rebirthing, with both groups believing that certain events during human birth are a traumatic event[citation needed] and that reviewing or revisiting this event, in some way, can have therapeutic benefits.

However, the actual techniques utilized in rebirthing-breathwork are quite different from those used by these therapies. Also, rebirthing-breathwork claims that it can heal suppressed emotions regardless of at what point in one's life they became suppressed. History[edit] Rebirthing-breathwork grew out of the work of Leonard Orr. Development of rebirthing as a therapeutic modality in its own right started in 1974 and has been further developed from that time. Description of the technique[edit] The main breathing technique consists of not pausing between inhaling and exhaling. Beliefs and perceptions[edit] Noble gas. The noble gases make a group of chemical elements with similar properties: under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.

The six noble gases that occur naturally are helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon (Rn). For the first six periods of the periodic table, the noble gases are exactly the members of group 18 of the periodic table. It is possible that due to relativistic effects, the group 14 element flerovium exhibits some noble-gas-like properties,[1] instead of the group 18 element ununoctium.[2] Noble gases are typically highly unreactive except when under particular extreme conditions. The inertness of noble gases makes them very suitable in applications where reactions are not wanted. For example: argon is used in lightbulbs to prevent the hot tungsten filament from oxidizing; also, helium is breathed by deep-sea divers to prevent oxygen and nitrogen toxicity. Waft. Nasal breathing.

Respiratory equipment

Nasal breathing. Rebreather. Atmosphere of Earth. Breathing. Breathing gas. Exhalation. Carbon dioxide. Oxygen. Inhalation. Carbon monoxide. Blackdamp. Respiratory and breathing troubles. Labored breathing. Hydreliox. Trimix (breathing gas) Technical respiratory stuff. Hydrox (breathing gas) Bradypnea. Circular breathing - Karkka. Rough breathing - Karkka.

Smooth breathing - Karkka. Anapanasati - Karkka. Respiratory body parts. Ice fog. Mist. Water vapor. Vapor intrusion. Air pollution dispersion terminology. Fugitive emissions. Buccal mask. Alternative air source. Oxygen tank. Pressure vessel for human occupancy. Nitrox. Heliox. Soil respiration. Buccal pumping. Eupnea. Air Quality Health Index.