Magic sand. Trimethylsilanol These properties are achieved by covering ordinary beach sand, which contains tiny particles of pure silica, and exposing them to vapors of trimethylsilanol (CH3)3SiOH, an organosilicon compound. Upon exposure, the trimethylsilane compound bonds to the silica particles while forming water. The exteriors of the sand grains are thus coated with hydrophobic groups. Magic sand was originally developed to trap ocean oil spills near the shore. This would be done by sprinkling Magic sand on floating petroleum, which would then mix with the oil and make it heavy enough to sink.
However, due to the expense of production, it is not being used for this purpose. Magic sand is made in blue, green, or red in colors but appears silvery in water because of a layer of air that forms around the sand, making it unable to get wet. Earliest reference to waterproof sand can be found in a 1915 book called The Boy Mechanic Book 2 put out by Popular Mechanics. References Jump up ^ G. Waste container. Litter bin redirects here. For a place for pet animals to 'go to the toilet' in, see litter box. A waste container is a container for temporarily storing waste, and is usually made out of metal or plastic. Common terms are dustbin, rubbish bin, litter bin, garbage can, trash can, trash bin, dumpster, waste basket, waste paper basket, waste receptacle, container bin, bin and kitchen bin.
The words "rubbish", "basket" and "bin" are more common in British English usage; "trash" and "can" are more common in American English usage. Curbside dustbins The curbside dustbins usually consist of three types: trash cans (receptacles often made of tin, steel or plastic), Dumpsters (large receptacles similar to skips) and wheelie bins (light, usually plastic bins that are mobile). In some areas there is also a recycling service, often with one or more dedicated bins intended to receive items that can be recycled into new products. Bins in public areas Gallery See also Immersion diuresis. Immersion diuresis is a type of diuresis caused by immersion of the body in water (or equivalent liquid). It is mainly caused by lower temperature and by pressure. The temperature component is caused by water drawing heat away from the body and causing vasoconstriction of the cutaneous blood vessels within the body to conserve heat. The body detects an increase in the blood pressure and inhibits the release of vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH)), causing an increase in the production of urine.
The pressure component is caused by the hydrostatic pressure of the water directly increasing blood pressure. Its significance is indicated by the fact that the temperature of the water doesn't substantially affect the rate of diuresis. Partial immersion of only the limbs does not cause increased urination. See also Cold-induced diuresis References Further reading Hunt NC (February 1967). Sputum culture. In a hospital setting, a sputum culture is most commonly ordered if a patient has a pneumonia. The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that sputum cultures be done in pneumonia requiring hospitalization, while the American College of Chest Physicians does not. One reason for such a discrepancy is that normal, healthy lungs have bacteria, and sputum cultures collect both normal and pathogenic bacteria. However, pure cultures of common respiratory pathogens in the absence of upper respiratory flora combined with symptoms of respiratory distress provides strong evidence of the infectious agent, and its significance.
Such pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and the highly infectious M tuberculosis, which are transmitted by inhaling aerosols. For this reason, laboratory processing of sputum for respiratory pathogens are performed with the aid of a biological safety cabinet. Vaginal discharge. Vaginal discharge is a term given to biological fluids contained within or expelled from the vagina. It can be of various colors, usually whitish, yellowish or greenish. While most discharge is normal and can reflect the various stages of the menstrual cycle, some discharge can be a result of an infection, such as a sexually transmitted disease. The term blennorrhea is often used to designate mucus discharge from the urethra or vagina, while blennorrhagia designates an excess of such discharge, often specifically referring to that seen in gonorrhea.
Jump up ^ Vaginal pH Test from Point of Care Testing, July 2009, at: University of California, San Francisco – Department of Laboratory Medicine. Prepared by: Patricia Nassos, PhD, MT and Clayton Hooper, RN.Jump up ^ thefreedictionary.com/blennorrhea, citing:Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers.
Cloth menstrual pad. Cloth menstrual pads are a reusable alternative to disposable sanitary napkins. They receive praise for being environmentally friendly, cost-cutting, as well as having purported health benefits. Basket of various cloth menstrual pads Cloth menstrual pad History Through the ages women have used different forms of menstrual protection. Women often used strips of folded old cloth (rags) to catch their menstrual blood, which is why the term "rags" was used to refer to menstruation.
Disposable menstrual pads appear to have been first commercially available from around 1888 with the Southall's pad. More widely successful disposable menstrual pads had their start during the first world war, when French nurses used Kimberly-Clark's wood pulp bandages as a menstrual pad that could be thrown away after use. Kotex's first advertisement for products made with this wood pulp appeared in 1921. Current use Some women make their own cloth menstrual pads. Stains sometimes occur. Bog body. Tollund Man lived in the 4th century BCE, and is one of the best studied examples of a bog body.
A bog body (Moorleiche in German) is a human cadaver that has been naturally mummified within a peat bog. Such bodies, sometimes known as bog people, are both geographically and chronologically widespread, having been dated to between 9000 BCE and the Second World War. The unifying factor of the bog bodies is that they have been found in peat and are partially preserved; however, the actual levels of preservation vary widely from perfectly preserved to mere skeletons. The German scientist Alfred Dieck published a catalog of more than 1,850 bog bodies that he had counted between 1939 and 1986 but most were unverified by documents or archaeological finds; and a 2002 analysis of Dieck's work by German archaeologists concluded that much of his work was unreliable. Bog chemistry Bog bodies, such as Röst Girl, no longer exist.
Historical context Mesolithic bodies Palustrine. Palustrine comes from the Latin word palus or marsh. Wetlands within this category include inland marshes and swamps as well as bogs, fens, tundra and floodplains. Palustrine systems include any inland wetland which lacks flowing water, contains ocean-derived salts in concentrations of less than 0.05%, and is non-tidal. It may be useful to clarify the differences between lacustrine and palustrine wetlands. Septic drain field. Septic drain fields, also called leach fields or leach drains are used to remove contaminants and impurities from the liquid that emerges from the septic tank.
A septic tank, the septic drain field, and the associated piping compose a complete septic system. The septic drain field is effective for disposal of organic materials readily catabolized by a microbial ecosystem. The drain field typically consists of an arrangement of trenches containing perforated pipes and porous material (often gravel) covered by a layer of soil to prevent animals and surface runoff from reaching the wastewater distributed within those trenches. Primary design considerations are hydraulic for the volume of wastewater requiring disposal and catabolic for the long-term biochemical oxygen demand of that wastewater.
Hydraulic design Cross-section of weeping tile and leach field Wastewater from toilets is assumed to contain bacteria and viruses capable of causing disease. Catabolic design Notes Blackwater (waste) Blackwater is a term dating to at least the 1970s used to describe wastewater containing fecal matter and urine. It is also known as foul water, or sewage. It is distinct from greywater or sullage, the residues of washing processes. Water coming from domestic equipment other than toilets (e.g., bathtubs, showers, sinks, washing machines) is called greywater and it is preferred to be kept separate from blackwater (which comes from toilets) to reduce the amount of water that gets heavily polluted.
Separation of blackwater and greywater nowadays happens with all ecological buildings. Especially in autonomous buildings, the separation is always present. It is also commonly used on recreational vehicles which feature a greywater holding tank and a blackwater holding tank. Blackwater contains pathogens that must decompose before they can be released safely into the environment. Blackwater can be avoided by making use of composting toilets and vermicomposting toilets. Intertidal wetland. An intertidal wetland is an area along a shoreline that is exposed to air at low tide and submerged at high tide. This type of wetland is defined by an intertidal zone and includes its own intertidal ecosystems. Description The main types of intertidal wetlands are mudflats (e.g., mangrove swamps) and salt marshes. The mangrove swamps are encountered along tropical shores and are characterized by tree vegetation, while salt marshes are mostly found in temperate zones and are mostly grass ecosystems. Intertidal wetlands are commonly encountered in most estuaries.
See also Tidal marsh References Elastin. Epithelium. Epithelial layers are avascular, so they must receive nourishment via diffusion of substances from the underlying connective tissue, through the basement membrane. Epithelia can also be organised into clusters of cells that function as exocrine and endocrine glands. Classification Summary showing different epithelial cells/tissues and their characteristics. There are three principal morphologies associated with epithelial cells: Squamous epithelium has cells that are wider than they are tall (flat and scale-like).Cuboidal epithelium has cells whose height and width are approximately the same (cube shaped).Columnar epithelium has cells taller than they are wide (column-shaped). Simple epithelium Simple epithelium is one cell thick; that is, every cell is in direct contact with the underlying basement membrane.
In general, simple epithelial tissues are classified by the shape of their cells. Structure Location Basement membrane Cell junctions