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Carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of 2 oxygen atoms each covalently double bonded to a single carbon atom.

Carbon dioxide

It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state, as a trace gas at a concentration of 0.039 per cent by volume.[1] Wastewater. Wastewater treatment plant in Cuxhaven, Germany Wastewater, also written as waste water, is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence.


Municipal wastewater is usually conveyed in a combined sewer or sanitary sewer, and treated at a wastewater treatment plant. Treated wastewater is discharged into receiving water via an effluent sewer. Wastewaters generated in areas without access to centralized sewer systems rely on on-site wastewater systems. These typically comprise a septic tank, drain field, and optionally an on-site treatment unit. Avatar Land. History[edit] Design[edit] Attractions[edit] A flying E ticket simulator attraction, where guests will learn to fly with a mountain Banshee.A boat ride attraction showcasing the native fauna and flora of Pandora.

Avatar Land

It may include small drops. Pillow lava. Recently formed pillow lava, off Hawaii Cross-section of pillow lava near Oamaru, New Zealand Pillow lavas are lavas that contain characteristic pillow-shaped structures that are attributed to the extrusion of the lava under water, or subaqueous extrusion.

Pillow lava

Intertidal wetland. An intertidal wetland is an area along a shoreline that is exposed to air at low tide and submerged at high tide.

Intertidal wetland

This type of wetland is defined by an intertidal zone and includes its own intertidal ecosystems. Description[edit] The main types of intertidal wetlands are mudflats (e.g., mangrove swamps) and salt marshes. Anoxia. Inert gas. An inert gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions. The noble gases and nitrogen often do not react with many substances.[1] Inert gases are used generally to avoid unwanted chemical reactions degrading a sample.

These undesirable chemical reactions are often oxidation and hydrolysis reactions with the oxygen and moisture in air. The term inert gas is context-dependent because nitrogen gas and several of the noble gases can be made to react under certain conditions. Purified nitrogen and argon gases are most commonly used as inert gases due to their high natural abundance (78% N2, 1% Ar in air) and low relative cost. Shale gas. As of 2013, the US, Canada, and China are the only countries producing shale gas in commercial quantities.

Shale gas

The US and Canada are the only countries where shale gas is a significant part of the gas supply. Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.[1] Shale gas has become an increasingly important source of natural gas in the United States since the start of this century, and interest has spread to potential gas shales in the rest of the world. In 2000 shale gas provided only 1% of U.S. natural gas production; by 2010 it was over 20% and the U.S. government's Energy Information Administration predicts that by 2035, 46% of the United States' natural gas supply will come from shale gas.[2] The Obama administration believes that increased shale gas development will help reduce greenhouse gas emissions[6] (in 2012, US carbon dioxide emissions dropped to a 20-year low[7]).

Tropospheric ozone. Seasonal average vertical columns of tropospheric ozone in Dobson units over the period 1979 to 2000.

Tropospheric ozone

In June to August photochemical ozone production causes very high concentrations over the East Coast of the USA and China. Ozone (O3) is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer). The troposphere extends from the surface of the Earth to between 12 and 20 kilometers above the surface of the Earth and consists of many layers.

Ozone is more concentrated above the mixing layer, or ground layer. Afterglow. After the eruption of the volcano Krakatoa in 1883, a remarkable series of red sunsets appeared worldwide.


These were due to an enormous amount of exceedingly fine dust blown to a great height by the volcano's explosion, and then globally diffused by the high atmospheric currents. Edvard Munch's painting The Scream possibly depicts an afterglow during this period. An afterglow on Krakow's housing estate. Aerostatics. Aerostatics is the study of gases that are not in motion.


The corresponding study of gases in motion is called aerodynamics. It is a subfield of fluid statics. Aerostatics studies density allocation, especially in air. One of the applications of this is the barometric formula. An aerostat is a lighter than air craft, such as an airship or balloon, which uses the principles of aerostatics to float. Carbon cycle. This diagram of the fast carbon cycle shows the movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans in billions of tons of carbon per year.

Carbon cycle

Yellow numbers are natural fluxes, red are human contributions in billions of tons of carbon per year. White numbers indicate stored carbon. The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. Controlled atmosphere. A controlled atmosphere is an agricultural storage method. An atmosphere in which oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations as well as temperature and humidity are regulated. Two major classes of commodity can be stored in controlled atmosphere: Dry commodities such as grains, legumes and oilseed. In these commodities the primary aim of the atmosphere is usually to control insect pests. Rod (optics) Long exposure photograph of moths showing exaggerated rod effect Various paranormal interpretations appeared in the popular culture, and one of the more outspoken proponents of rods as alien life forms is Jose Escamilla, who claims to have been the first to film them on March 19, 1994 at Roswell, New Mexico, while attempting to film a UFO.

Since then, Escamilla has made additional videos and embarked on lecture tours to promote his claims.[2] The Straight Dope columnist Cecil Adams called rods a hoax "where unscrupulous people are exploiting a gullible public for profit", and said that investigators have shown that rods are mere tricks of light which result from how images (primarily video images) of flying insects are recorded and played back. In particular, the fast passage before the camera of an insect flapping its wings has been shown to produce rodlike effects, due to motion blur, if the camera is shooting with relatively long exposure times.[3] Ozone. Ozone /ˈoʊzoʊn/ (systematically named 1λ1,3λ1-trioxidane and μ-oxidodioxygen), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O 3(μ-O) (also written [O(μ-O)O] or O 3). Bog. Carnivorous plants, such as this Sarracenia purpurea pitcher plant of the eastern seaboard of North America, are often found in bogs.

Marsh. A marsh along the edge of a small river. Mire. Leftlake Mire on Dartmoor. The lake is a former quarry. A mire or quagmire, sometimes called a peatland in North America, is a wetland terrain dominated by living, peat-forming plants. Tropical rainforest. Waste container. Litter bin redirects here. For a place for pet animals to 'go to the toilet' in, see litter box. Effects of the automobile on societies. Urban land use is often dominated by automobiles. Pictured: São Paulo, Brazil. Water. Oil sludge. Oil sludge or black sludge is a solid or gel in motor oil caused by the oil gelling or solidifying, usually at temperatures lower than 100 degrees Celsius.

Oil sludge can be a major contributor to internal combustion engine problems, and can require the engine to be replaced, if the damage is severe. Sludge is usually caused by a poorly designed or defective crankcase ventilation system, low engine operating temperatures or the presence of water in the oil, and can accumulate with use. Ways to minimize sludge production and accumulation includes performing frequent oil changes, performing mechanized engine flushing, or de-sludging, using synthetic oil,[1] and following the manufacturer's engine maintenance routine. Toyota, VW, Audi and some Saab engines are known for oil sludge.

Environmental impact of aviation. Dead zone (ecology) Red circles show the location and size of many dead zones. Black dots show dead zones of unknown size.The size and number of marine dead zones—areas where the deep water is so low in dissolved oxygen that sea creatures can't survive—have grown explosively in the past half-century. – NASA Earth Observatory[1] In March 2004, when the recently established UN Environment Programme published its first Global Environment Outlook Year Book (GEO Year Book 2003), it reported 146 dead zones in the world's oceans where marine life could not be supported due to depleted oxygen levels. Some of these were as small as a square kilometre (0.4 mi²), but the largest dead zone covered 70,000 square kilometres (27,000 mi²).