Agnostic theism. Agnostic theism is the philosophical view that encompasses both theism and agnosticism. An agnostic theist believes in the existence of at least one deity, but regards the basis of this proposition as unknown or inherently unknowable. The agnostic theist may also or alternatively be agnostic regarding the properties of the god(s) they believe in. Views of agnostic theism Agnostic theism is belief but without knowledge, as shown in purple and blue (see Epistemology). There are numerous beliefs that can be included in agnostic theism, such as fideism, but not all agnostic theists are fideists. Since agnosticism is in the philosophical rather than religious sense a position on knowledge and does not forbid belief in a deity, it is compatible with most theistic positions. The classical philosophical understanding of knowledge is that knowledge is justified true belief.
Christian Agnostics practice a distinct form of agnosticism that applies only to the properties of God. Negative and positive atheism. A diagram showing the relationship between the definitions of weak/strong and implicit/explicit atheism. Explicit positive/strong/hard atheists (in purple on the right) assert that "at least one deity exists" is a false statement. Explicit negative/weak/soft atheists (in blue on the right) reject or eschew belief that any deities exist without actually asserting that "at least one deity exists" is a false statement. Implicit negative/weak/soft atheists (in blue on the left) would include people (such as infants and some agnostics) who do not believe in a deity, but have not explicitly rejected such belief. (Sizes in the diagram are not meant to indicate relative sizes within a population.) The terms negative atheism and positive atheism were used by Antony Flew in 1976, and appeared again in Michael Martin's writings in 1990. Scope of application Positive and negative atheism are distinct from the philosopher George H.
Alternate meanings See also Antitheism. Secular humanism. The philosophy or life stance of secular humanism (alternatively known by some adherents as Humanism, specifically with a capital H to distinguish it from other forms of humanism) embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making. The International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) is the world union of more than one hundred Humanist, rationalist, irreligious, atheistic, Bright, secular, Ethical Culture, and freethought organizations in more than 40 countries.
The "Happy Human" is the official symbol of the IHEU as well as being regarded as a universally recognised symbol for those who call themselves Humanists. Secular humanist organizations are found in all parts of the world. Those who call themselves humanists are estimated to number between four and five million people worldwide. Terminology History Case law Omnipotence paradox. Atheism. Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities. In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Most inclusively, atheism is the absence of belief that any deities exist. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists. The term "atheism" originated from the Greek ἄθεος (atheos), meaning "without god(s)", used as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, and subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope.
The first individuals to identify themselves using the word "atheist" lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to social and historical approaches. Definitions and distinctions Range Concepts. Atheist existentialism. Atheist existentialism or atheistic existentialism is a kind of existentialism which strongly diverged from the Christian works of Søren Kierkegaard and has developed within the context of an atheistic worldview. Thought Atheistic existentialism confronts death anxiety without appealing to a hope of somehow being saved by a God (and often without any appeal to supernatural salvations like reincarnation). For some thinkers, existential malaise is mostly theoretical (as it is with Jean-Paul Sartre) while others are quite affected by an existentialistic anguish (an example being Albert Camus and his discussion of the Absurd).
Sartre once said "existence precedes essence". What he meant was that, first of all, man exists (e.g. appears on the scene) and only afterwards defines himself. If man, as the existentialist conceives him, is indefinable, it is because at first he is nothing. Only afterward will he be something, and he himself will have made what he will be. Major works Biosophy. Biosophy, meaning wisdom of life, is a humanist movement heavily influenced by the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza.
It is "the science and art of intelligent living based on the awareness and practice of spiritual values, ethical-social principles and character qualities essential to individual freedom and social harmony" . It stands in relation to biology, which can be broadly described as the understanding of life. History The term Biosophy was probably first used in 1806 by Ignaz Paul Vitalis Troxler, a Swiss philosopher whose early works followed F. W. J. Contemporary 'biosophers' include Jong Bhak, who defines Biosophy as a "new way of performing philosophy generated from scientific and biological awareness" .
Theory of Biosophy Zapffe's arguments have been understood in relation to philosophical pessimism and existentialism. The Biosophy Program was presented on the Internet by Anna Öhman & Svenolov Lindgren in January 1998 . Objectives Secular humanism. List of atheists in politics and law. Abiogenesis. Scientific hypotheses about the origins of life can be divided into a number of categories. Many approaches investigate how self-replicating molecules or their components came into existence. On the assumption that life originated spontaneously on Earth, the Miller–Urey experiment and similar experiments demonstrated that most amino acids, often called "the building blocks of life", can be racemically synthesized in conditions which were intended to be similar to those of the early Earth. Several mechanisms have been investigated, including lightning and radiation.
Other approaches ("metabolism first" hypotheses) focus on understanding how catalysis in chemical systems in the early Earth might have provided the precursor molecules necessary for self-replication. Early conditions The Hadean Earth is thought to have had a secondary atmosphere, formed through degassing of the rocks that accumulated from planetesimal impactors. The earliest life on Earth Current models The True Word. The True Word (Discourse, Account, or Doctrine) (Λόγος Ἀληθής) is a treatise in which Celsus addressed many principal points of Early Christianity and refuted or argued against their validity. In The True Word Celsus attacked Christianity in three ways; by refuting its philosophical claims, by marking it as a phenomenon associated with the uneducated and lower class, and by cautioning his audience that it was a danger to the Roman Empire.
The work only survives in the extensive quotations from it in the Contra Celsum ("Against Celsus") written some seventy years later by the Christian Origen. These are believed to be accurate as far as they go, but may not give a fully comprehensive picture of the original work. Criticism of Christianity before Celsus Celsus was only one writer in a long tradition of Roman writers and philosophers who wrote and spoke out against Christianity, feeling that their doctrines were either inscrutable or downright foolish. Celsus and his work The Enemies of Reason. The Enemies of Reason is a two-part television documentary, written and presented by evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins, in which he seeks to expose "those areas of belief that exist without scientific proof, yet manage to hold the nation under their spell", including mediumship, acupuncture and psychokinesis. The documentary was first broadcast on Channel 4 in the UK, styled as a loose successor to Dawkins' documentary of the previous year, The Root of All Evil?
, as seen through the incorporation of brief clips from said documentary during the introduction of the first part by Dawkins. The first part aired 13 August 2007 and the second on 20 August 2007. Episode 1: Slaves to Superstition Dawkins points to some of science’s achievements and describes it as freeing most people from superstition and dogma. In another notable segment Dawkins visits a psychic for £50 who said she could hear or see his father "on the other side Episode 2: The Irrational Health Service Skepticon. Skepticon is the largest skeptic and secular convention held in the United States. It was co-founded by Missouri State University students Lauren Lane and JT Eberhard.
Guest speakers are invited to discuss atheism, skepticism, and other related topics. This free event is sponsored by the Missouri's Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, and is held on the campus of Missouri State University. To explain the goals of the event organizer JT Eberhard wrote: “Skeptics conferences are an important part of the movement. They not only grant people access to the icons of the movement, they also arm those in attendance with information; the key weapon for the side of reason. They also provide a sense of community for a group of people who can often feel isolated in a largely religious population.” History The Skepticon conference grew out of a speaking engagement organized by a student group on the campus of Missouri State University.
Atheism vs. Locations and Dates Sign of the horns. A demonstration of the Sign of the Horns The sign of the horns is a hand gesture with a variety of meanings and uses in various cultures. It is formed by extending the index and little fingers while holding the middle and ring fingers down with the thumb. Superstition In Italy and some Mediterranean cultures, when confronted with unfortunate events, or simply when these events are mentioned, the sign of the horns may be given to ward off bad luck. It is also used traditionally to counter or ward off the "evil eye" (malocchio). In Peru one says contra (against). Offensive gesture European and North American popular culture Contemporary use by musicians and fans  Ronnie James Dio was known for popularizing the sign of the horns in heavy metal. He claimed his Italian grandmother used it to ward off the evil eye (which is known in Southern Italy as malocchio).
Terry "Geezer" Butler of Black Sabbath can be seen "raising the horns" in a photograph taken in 1971. List of atheists in music. Ignosticism. Ignosticism is a set of ideas refuting the importance of determining the existence of God. It claims that knowledge regarding the reality of God is altogether unprofitable. This idea is directly contested by the Christian belief in Jesus. Terminology The term ignosticism was coined in the 1960s by Sherwin Wine, a rabbi and a founding figure of Humanistic Judaism. Distinction of Ignosticism from Theological Noncognitivism Ignosticism and theological noncognitivism are similar although whereas the ignostic says "every theological position assumes too much about the concept of God", the theological noncognitivist claims to have no concept whatever to label as "a concept of God", but the relationship of ignosticism to other nontheistic views is less clear.
See also References Jump up ^ Conifer, Theological Noncognitivism: "Theological noncognitivism is usually taken to be the view that the sentence 'God exists' is cognitively meaningless. " Sources Pharyngula (blog) Is God Dead? The issue drew heavy criticism, both from the broader public and from clergymen. Much of the criticism was directed at the provocative magazine cover, rather than the content of the article.
The cover – all black with the words "Is God Dead? " in large red text – marked the first time in the magazine's history that text with no accompanying image was used. In 2008, the Los Angeles Times named the "Is God Dead? " issue among "10 magazine covers that shook the world". Background The April 8, 1966, cover of Time magazine was the first cover in the magazine's history to feature only type, and no photo. The cover – with the traditional, red border – was all black, with the words "Is God Dead? " Themes presented by the article The problems Nietzsche's thesis was that striving, self-centered man had killed God, and that settled that. The article pointed out that while this movement had roots in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, it also drew on a broader range of thinkers.
Invisible Pink Unicorn. The Invisible Pink Unicorn (IPU) is the goddess of a parody religion used to satirize theistic beliefs, taking the form of a unicorn that is paradoxically both invisible and pink. She is a rhetorical illustration used by atheists and other religious skeptics as a contemporary version of Russell's teapot, sometimes mentioned in conjunction with the Flying Spaghetti Monster. The IPU is used to argue that supernatural beliefs are arbitrary by, for example, replacing the word God in any theistic statement with Invisible Pink Unicorn. The mutually exclusive attributes of pinkness and invisibility, coupled with the inability to disprove the IPU's existence, satirize properties that some theists attribute to a theistic deity. History The Invisible Pink Unicorn logo used to depict atheism The concept was further developed by a group of college students from 1994 to 1995 on the ISCA Telnet-based BBS.
Invisible Pink Unicorns are beings of great spiritual power. Concepts Jainism and non-creationism. Jainism does not support belief in a creator deity. According to Jain doctrine, the universe and its constituents—soul, matter, space, time, and principles of motion—have always existed. All the constituents and actions are governed by universal natural laws. It is not possible to create matter out of nothing and hence the sum total of matter in the universe remains the same (similar to law of conservation of mass).
Jain text claims that the universe consists of Jiva (life force or souls), and Ajiva (lifeless objects). Similarly, the soul of each living being is unique and uncreated and has existed since beginningless time. The Jain theory of causation holds that a cause and its effect are always identical in nature and hence a conscious and immaterial entity like God cannot create a material entity like the universe. Jaina conception of the Universe Representation of Universe in Jain cosmology in form of a lokapurusa or cosmic man. Structure of Universe as per the Jain Scriptures. Atheist's Wager. Jean Meslier. Russell's teapot.