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The Eastern Woodlands cultural area on this map is divided into "Northeast" and "Southeast". The Eastern Woodlands was a cultural area of the indigenous people of North America . The Eastern Woodlands extended roughly from the Atlantic Ocean to the eastern Great Plains , and from the Great Lakes region to the Gulf of Mexico , which is now the eastern United States and Canada . The Plains Indians culture area is to the west; the Subarctic area to the north.
The Algonquian languages ( pron.: / æ l ˈ ɡ ɒ ŋ k w i ə n / or / æ l ˈ ɡ ɒ ŋ k i ə n / ; [ 1 ] also Algonkian ) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family . The name of the Algonquian language family is distinguished from the orthographically similar Algonquin dialect of the Ojibwe language , which is a member of the Algonquian language family. The term "Algonquin" has been suggested to derive from the Maliseet word elakómkwik (pronounced [ɛlæˈɡomoɡwik] ), "they are our relatives/allies". A number of Algonquian languages have already become extinct. Speakers of Algonquian languages stretch from the east coast of North America all the way to the Rocky Mountains. The proto-language from which all of the languages of the family descend, Proto-Algonquian , was spoken at least 3,000 years ago.
The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups, with tribes originally numbering in the hundreds. Today hundreds of thousands of individuals identify with various Algonquian peoples. Historically the peoples were prominent along the Atlantic Coast and into the interior along the St. Lawrence River and around the Great Lakes .
The Navajo ( Navajo : Diné or Naabeehó ) of the Southwestern United States are the largest federally recognized tribe of the United States of America with 300,048 enrolled tribal members. [ 2 ] [ 1 ] The Navajo Nation constitutes an independent governmental body, which manages the Navajo Indian reservation in the Four Corners area of the United States . The Navajo language is spoken throughout the region with most Navajo capable of speaking English as well. [ edit ] History [ edit ] Early History
Apache ( pron.: / ə ˈ p æ tʃ iː / ; French: [a.paʃ] ) is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States originally from the Southwest United States . These indigenous peoples of North America speak a Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) language, which is related linguistically to the languages of Athabaskan speakers of Alaska and western Canada . The modern term Apache excludes the related Navajo people.
Pueblos are modern and ancient communities of Native Americans in the Southwestern United States of America. The first Spanish explorers of the Southwest used this term to describe the communities housed in apartment-like structures built of stone, adobe mud, and other local material. These structures were usually multi-storeyed buildings surrounding an open plaza. They were occupied by hundreds to thousands of Pueblo people . [ edit ] Etymology and usage
Ancient Pueblo peoples or Ancestral Pueblo peoples were an ancient Native American culture centered on the present-day Four Corners area of the United States , comprising southern Utah , northeastern Arizona , northern New Mexico , and southwestern Colorado . [ 1 ] They lived in a range of structures, including pit houses, pueblos, and cliff dwellings designed so that they could lift entry ladders during enemy attacks, which provided security. Archaeologists referred to one of these cultural groups as the Anasazi , although the term is not preferred by contemporary Pueblo peoples . [ 2 ] The word Anaasází is Navajo for "Ancient Ones" or "Ancient Enemy". [ 3 ] Archaeologists still debate when this distinct culture emerged. The current consensus, based on terminology defined by the Pecos Classification , suggests their emergence around the 12th century BCE, during the archaeologically designated Early Basketmaker II Era .
The Inuit ( Inuktitut : ᐃᓄᐃᑦ , "People") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland , Canada , the United States , and Russia . Inuit is a plural noun; the singular is Inuk . The Inuit languages are classified in the Eskimo-Aleut family . [ 10 ] In the United States, the term Eskimo is commonly used in reference to these groups, because it includes both of Alaska's Yupik and Inupiat peoples while "Inuit" is not proper or accepted as a term for the Inupiat. No collective term exists for both peoples other than "Eskimo". [ 11 ] However, natives in Canada and Greenland view the name as pejorative and "Inuit" has become more common. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] In Canada, sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 named the "Inuit" as a distinctive group of aboriginal Canadians who are not included under either the First Nations or the Métis . [ 14 ]
The varying cultures collectively called Mound Builders were Pre-Columbian inhabitants of North America who, during a 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious and ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes. These included the Pre-Columbian cultures of the Archaic period ; Woodland period ( Adena and Hopewell cultures); and Mississippian period ; dating from roughly 3400 BCE to the 16th century CE, and living in regions of the Great Lakes , the Ohio River valley, and the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. [ 1 ] Beginning with the construction of Watson Brake about 3400 BCE in present-day Louisiana , nomadic indigenous peoples started building earthwork mounds in North America nearly 1000 years before the pyramids were constructed in Egypt . Since the 19th century, the prevailing scholarly consensus has been that the mounds were constructed by indigenous peoples of the Americas .