Soviet Psychology: The Vygotsky Internet Archive.
§14. The problem of the environment by Vygotsky. Vygotsky 1934 §14. Zone of proximal development. In the middle circle, representing the zone of proximal development, students cannot complete tasks unaided, but can complete them with guidance.
The zone of proximal development, often abbreviated as ZPD, is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help. It is a concept introduced, yet not fully developed, by Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934) during the last ten years of his life. Vygotsky stated that a child follows an adult's example and gradually develops the ability to do certain tasks without help. Vygotsky and some educators believe that education's role is to give children experiences that are within their zones of proximal development, thereby encouraging and advancing their individual learning. Origins The concept of the zone of proximal development was originally developed by Vygotsky to argue against the use of academic, knowledge-based tests as a means to gauge students' intelligence.
Definition Vygotsky, ZPD, Scaffolding, Connectivism and Personal Learning Networks. Key to learning. Viva Vygotsky!
Freedom of Thought Galina Doyla & Sue Palmer He lived for only 38 years, but in his last decade (1924-1934), the Russian thinker Lev Vygotsky transformed the study of developmental psychology. His cultural-historical theory caused an explosion of interest in Russia, and inspired much original research by other psychologists. Tragically, these innovative and inspirational ideas were immediately suppressed. After Stalin's death Vygotsky was rediscovered by another generation of psychologists and teachers. For teachers, Vygotsky provides a theoretical underpinning for effective practice. Classroom Applications of Vygotsky's Theory. Ch. 2, p. 47 Classroom Applications of Vygotsky’s Theory Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development is based on the idea that development is defined both by what a child can do independently and by what the child can do when assisted by an adult or more competent peer (Daniels, 1995; Wertsch, 1991).
Knowing both levels of Vygotsky’s zone is useful for teachers, for these levels indicate where the child is at a given moment as well as where the child is going. Vygotsky.
Vygotsky in the Classroom. Lev Vygotsky. Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (Russian: Лев Семёнович Вы́готский or Выго́тский, born Лев Симхович Выгодский (Lev Simkhovich Vygodsky), November 17 [O.S. November 5] 1896 – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet psychologist, the founder of cultural-historical psychology, and the leader of the Vygotsky Circle. In the early 1920s, his birth name was changed from Vygodskii (with "d") into Vygotskii (with middle "t"). Lev Vygotsky was born in Orsha, Byelorussia, in the Russian Empire (present-day Belarus) into a nonreligious Jewish family. He was raised in the city of Gomel, where he obtained both public and private education. He was influenced by his cousin, David Vygodsky. Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (Russian: Лев Семёнович Вы́готский or Выго́тский, born Лев Симхович Выгодский (Lev Simkhovich Vygodsky), November 17 [O.S. Soviet Psychology: The Vygotsky Internet Archive.
Social Development Theory. Overview The major theme of Vygotsky's theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition.
Vygotsky (1978) states: "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals.
" (p57). A second aspect of Vygotsky's theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior. Vygotsky's theory was an attempt to explain consciousness as the end product of socialization. Application This is a general theory of cognitive development. Example. Vygotsky's constructivism. Social Development Theory (Vygotsky. Summary: Social Development Theory argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior.
John Dewey and informal education. (This ‘John Dewey’ page is due to be extended).
John Dewey (1859 – 1952) has made, arguably, the most significant contribution to the development of educational thinking in the twentieth century. Dewey’s philosophical pragmatism, concern with interaction, reflection and experience, and interest in community and democracy, were brought together to form a highly suggestive educative form. John Dewey is often misrepresented – and wrongly associated with child-centred education. In many respects his work cannot be easily slotted into any one of the curriculum traditions that have dominated north American and UK schooling traditions over the last century.
Constructivism in learning. Constructivism is the label given to a set of theories about learning which fall somewhere between cognitive and humanistic views.
If behaviourism treats the organism as a black box, cognitive theory recognises the importance of the mind in making sense of the material with which it is presented. Nevertheless, it still presupposes that the role of the learner is primarily to assimilate whatever the teacher presents. Constructivism — particularly in its "social" forms — suggests that the learner is much more actively involved in a joint enterprise with the teacher of creating ("constructing") new meanings. We can distinguish between "cognitive constructivism" which is about how the individual learner understands things, in terms of developmental stages and learning styles, and "social constructivism", which emphasises how meanings and understandings grow out of social encounters—see Vygotsky below.