Embedded Systems Course
Learn about computer hardware with these free online courses. See the full list of free computer hardware courses and find the class that's right for you. Online Course Requirements and Information
Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer hardware and software. [ 1 ] Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering (or electrical engineering ), software design , and hardware-software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors , personal computers , and supercomputers , to circuit design . This field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work, but also how they integrate into the larger picture. [ 2 ] Usual tasks involving computer engineers include writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers , designing VLSI chips, designing analog sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards , and designing operating systems .
Ever encountered a situation where you needed to view, disassemble or decompile a binary file, such as a data file, an object file, a library archive, a shared library (or DLL in Windows) or an executable image? Assembled on this page are several hex viewers (hexadecimal viewers), hex editors, disassemblers (loosely speaking, "assembler decompilers") that will allow you to do precisely that. HxD Freeware Hex Editor HxD is a hex editor that not only allows you to view and edit files but also allows you to perform raw disk editing as well as edit the RAM of other processes. You can search and replace, export, insert byte patterns, shred files, concatenate files, split them, etc. The search and replace facility supports Unicode, ANSI text and hex values.
Kenneth Lane Thompson (born February 4, 1943), commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles , [ 1 ] is an American pioneer of computer science . Having worked at Bell Labs for most of his career, Thompson designed and implemented the original Unix operating system. He also invented the B programming language , the direct predecessor to the C programming language , and was one of the creators and early developers of the Plan 9 operating systems. Since 2006, Thompson works at Google , where he co-invented the Go programming language . Other notable contributions included his work on regular expressions and early computer text editors QED and ed , his work on computer chess that included creation of endgame tablebases and the chess machine Belle .
The Intel 8086. Intel Core 2 Duo - an example of an x86-compatible, 64-bit multicore processor. AMD Athlon (early version) - another technically different, but fully compatible, x86 implementation.
The EFF 's US$250,000 DES cracking machine contained over 1,800 custom chips and could brute-force a DES key in a matter of days. The photograph shows a DES Cracker circuit board fitted on both sides with 64 Deep Crack chips. In cryptography , a brute-force attack , or exhaustive key search , is a cryptanalytic attack that can, in theory, be used against any encrypted data (except for data encrypted in an information-theoretically secure manner). Such an attack might be utilized when it is not possible to take advantage of other weaknesses in an encryption system (if any exist) that would make the task easier.
Machine code or machine language is a system of largely impartible instructions executed directly by a computer 's central processing unit (CPU). Each instruction performs a very specific task, such as a load, a jump , or an ALU operation on a unit of data in a CPU register or memory. Every program directly executed by a CPU is made up of a series of such instructions. Numerical machine code (i.e. not assembly code ) may be regarded as the lowest-level representation of a compiled and/or assembled computer program or as a primitive and hardware -dependent programming language . While it is possible to write programs directly in numerical machine code, it is tedious and error prone to manage individual bits and calculate numerical addresses and constants manually.
See the terminology section below for information regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. Motorola MC6800 Assembly Language An assembly language is a low-level programming language for a computer , microcontroller , or other programmable device, in which each statement corresponds to a single machine code instruction . Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture , in contrast to most high-level programming languages , which are generally portable across multiple systems.
A System programming language is usually used to mean "a language for system programming ": that is, a language designed for writing system software as distinct from application software . [ edit ] Features In contrast with application languages, such system programming languages typically offer more direct access to the physical hardware of the machine: an archetypical system programming language in this sense was BCPL . System programming languages often lack built in input/output facilities because a system-software project usually develops its own input/output or builds on basic monitor I/O or screen management services facilities. The distinction between languages for system programming and applications programming became blurred with widespread popularity of C and Pascal .
About University of California - Berkeley Founded in 1868 on the San Francisco Bay, UC Berkeley is the flagship campus of the University of California and one of the world's most prestigious public universities. The university is divided into 14 schools and colleges, further separated into 130 academic departments offering degree programs from the undergraduate to doctoral level. Cal offers renowned programs through the highly ranked Haas School of Business, College of Engineering, School of Law, and Goldman School of Public Policy. Notable alumni include novelist Jack London, former Supreme Court justice Earl Warren, actor Gregory Peck, and current California governor Jerry Brown.
System programming (or systems programming ) is the activity of programming system software . The primary distinguishing characteristic of systems programming when compared to application programming is that application programming aims to produce software which provides services to the user (e.g. word processor ), whereas systems programming aims to produce software which provides services to the computer hardware (e.g. disk defragmenter ). It requires a greater degree of hardware awareness.
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In computer science , a tail call is a subroutine call that happens inside another procedure as its final action; it may produce a return value which is then immediately returned by the calling procedure. The call site is then said to be in tail position , i.e. at the end of the calling procedure. If any call that a subroutine performs, such that it might eventually lead to this same subroutine being called again down the call chain, is in tail position, such a subroutine is said to be tail-recursive . This is a special case of recursion .
Induction Subjects to be Learned Proof of program correctness using induction Contents Loops in an algorithm/program can be proven correct using mathematical induction.
Proof-carrying code (PCC) is a software mechanism that allows a host system to verify properties about an application via a formal proof that accompanies the application's executable code. The host system can quickly verify the validity of the proof, and it can compare the conclusions of the proof to its own security policy to determine whether the application is safe to execute. This can be particularly useful in ensuring memory safety, i.e. preventing buffer overflows and other vulnerabilities common in some programming languages . Proof-carrying code was originally described in 1996 by George Necula and Peter Lee . [ edit ] Packet filter example
Data Structures & Algorithms
Scientific Visualization (computer graphics)