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Cesarean Section - A Brief History preface. Cesarean section has been part of human culture since ancient times and there are tales in both Western and non-Western cultures of this procedure resulting in live mothers and offspring.

Cesarean Section - A Brief History preface

According to Greek mythology Apollo removed Asclepius, founder of the famous cult of religious medicine, from his mother's abdomen. Numerous references to cesarean section appear in ancient Hindu, Egyptian, Grecian, Roman, and other European folklore. Ancient Chinese etchings depict the procedure on apparently living women. The Mischnagoth and Talmud prohibited primogeniture when twins were born by cesarean section and waived the purification rituals for women delivered by surgery.

Yet, the early history of cesarean section remains shrouded in myth and is of dubious accuracy. During its evolution cesarean section has meant different things to different people at different times. There were, though, sporadic early reports of heroic efforts to save women's lives. Crazy Medieval Medical Practices We Still Use.

Medieval times were dark and without reason, or at least that’s what we’re taught to think.

Crazy Medieval Medical Practices We Still Use

But contrary to this popular belief, many of our common medical practices have roots in this period. Of course the treatments have been refined and the instruments standardized, but many practices are relatively unchanged. So if you’ve ever wondered about the origins of modern medical procedures, check out our list of amazing ones from the Middle Ages which we still use today: #1 Bloodletting A.K.A Phlebotomy We’re all shocked and disgusted when we hear about medieval bloodletting, but this seemingly crazy practice is still used today. Royal touch. Origins[edit] A 15th-century manuscript depicting the tradition that Clovis I healed the scrofulous following his coronation.

Royal touch

The kings and queens regnant of England and the kings of France were the only Christian rulers who claimed the divine gift (divinitus)[4] to cure by touching or stroking the diseased.[2] This special aptitude was thought to be evidence of God's high esteem of the two monarchies, though they never agreed upon whose predecessors the ability was first conferred. In England, Saint Edward the Confessor (r. 1042–1066) was said to be the first monarch to possess the healing power of the royal touch.[2] The French, who normally traced the origins of their monarchs' divine gift back to Philip I (r. 1059–1108) or even Robert II (r. 987–1031), denied that Saint Edward used the royal touch.

England[edit] Henry I's successors did not consider the royal touch fundamental, reducing its application. Procedure[edit] Frequency[edit] France[edit] Wars of Religion[edit] See also[edit] 10 Completely Uncanny Superstitions From The Middle Ages. Weird Stuff In the pre-scientific Middle Ages, the world was at the same time both fascinating and frightening.

10 Completely Uncanny Superstitions From The Middle Ages

In the absence of proper knowledge, people had no choice but to fall back on their own imaginations to make sense of the myriad natural phenomena around them. The result was a world where everything seemed magical, a place teeming with angels and demons, fairies and goblins, elves, gnomes, and witches. This list takes us inside the medieval mind and the fears and superstitions through which it tried to explain the world. 10 The Sea In The Sky For this story, we are indebted to English chronicler Gervase of Tilbury and his work Otia Imperiala.

For proof, Gervase offers an episode that took place in an English village. Another tale concerns a merchant who accidentally dropped his knife while out at sea. 9 Omens Of Charlemagne’s Death The Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in A.D. 800. 8 Magonia 7 Changelings 6 The Royal Touch 5 The Wild Man Of Orford. What Is a Hero? - The New York Times. Video We often talk about soldiers, firefighters and fictional characters with supernatural powers as heroes.

What Is a Hero? - The New York Times

Recently, the news media have used the term to describe three Americans who helped foil an attack on a speeding train in Europe. But what really is a hero? Does heroism always involve physical strength, or are there other qualities that define being a hero? In “Americans Resist Hero Label After Foiling Train Attack,” Adam Nossiter writes: PARIS — Looking awed by the sumptuous gilded surroundings of the United States ambassador’s residence here, the three young American men who thwarted an attack on a Paris-bound express train appeared at a news conference on Sunday, brushing aside suggestions that they were heroes.Airman First Class Spencer Stone; Alek Skarlatos, a specialist in the Oregon National Guard; and Anthony Sadler, a friend of theirs, sat side by side, soberly recounting how a European vacation swiftly turned into something else. . — What is a hero?